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such questions for centuries (unrestricted by the capabilities of any ha- ware). Theprinciplesgoverningtheinteractionofseveralprocesses, forexample, are abstract an similar to principles governing the cooperation of two large organisation. A detailed rule based e?ective but rigid bureaucracy is very much similar to a complex computer program handling and manipulating data. My guess is that the principles underlying one are very much the same as those underlying the other. Ibelievethedayisnotfarawayinthefuturewhenthecomputerscientist will wake up one morning with the realisation that he is actually a kind of formal philosopher! The projected number of volumes for this Handbook is about 18. The subjecthasevolvedanditsareashavebecomeinterrelatedtosuchanextent that it no longer makes sense to dedicate volumes to topics. However, the volumes do follow some natural groupingsof chapters. Iwould liketothank our authorsand readersfor their contributionsand their commitment in making this Handbook a success. Thanksalso to our publication administrator Mrs J. Spurr for her usual dedication and excellence and to Kluwer Academic Publishers (now Springer) for their continuing support for the Handbook. Dov Gabbay King’s College London 10 Logic IT Natural Program Arti?cial in- Logicp- language control spec- telligence gramming processing i?cation, veri?cation, concurrency Temporal Expressive Expressive Planning. Extension of logic power of tense power for re- Time depen- Horn clause operators. current events. dent data. with time Temporal Speci?cation Eventcalculus. capability. indices. Sepa- of tempo- Persistence Event calculus. ration of past ral control. through time— Temporal logic from future Decision prob- theFrame programming. lems. Model Problem. T- checking. poral query language. temporal transactions.