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A comprehensive overview of the diversity of nucleolar function
Data presented comes from a wide spectrum of species
Leading edge studies presented shed new light on nucleolar processes
Biomedical aspects of nucleolar function are detailed
This book contains 14 original review chapters each yielding new, exciting and intriguing data about the emerging understanding of nucleolar structure and function in normal, stressed and diseased cells. The goal of this work is to provide special insight into the nucleolus of the past, present and future, as well its regulation, translocation, and biomedical function. A multitude of topics are introduced and discussed in detail, including nucleologenesis, nucleolar architecture, nucleolar targeting, retention, anchoring, translocation, and the relationship between the nucleolus and cancer. This book also brings together work from several different species, from human to Drosophila to Dictyostelium and other eukaryotic microbes. The final chapter summarizes some of the issues brought up in the various chapters with a view to future research. This book supports the continued emergence of the nucleolus as a dynamic intranuclear region that oversees a vast diversity of events.
Part I Introduction.- Chapter 1 Proteins of the nucleolus: An introduction.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Functional consequences of nuclear and nucleolar architecture (Chapter 2).- 1.3 rDNA and nucleologenesis in Drosophila (Chapter 3).- 1.4 The nucleolus of Dictyostelium and other lower eukaryotes (Chapter 4).- 1.5 Human rDNA genes: Identification of four fractions, their functions and nucleolar location (Chapter 5).- 1.6 Chromatin organization and the mammalian nucleolus (Chapter 6).- 1.7 Chaperones and multitasking proteins in the nucleolus (Chapter 7).- 1.8 Nucleolar localization/retention signals (Chapter 8).- 1.9 Nucleolar transport of putative GTPase GNL1 and related proteins (Chapter 9).- 1.10 Nucleolar protein anchoring and translocation (Chapter 10).- 1.11 The nucleolus as a stress response organelle (Chapter 11).- 1.12 The nucleolar aspect of breast cancer (Chapter 12).- 1.13 Cysteine proteinase inhibitors in the nucleus and nucleolus in activated macrophages (Chapter 13).- 1.14 Nucleolar proteins and cancer: The roles of Aurora A-interacting nucleolar proteins in mitosis and cancer (Chapter 14).- 1.15 Nucleolar transplantation and human embryogenesis (Chapter 15).- 1.16Conclusion.- Part II The nucleolus and nucleolar proteins.- Chapter 2 Functional consequences of nuclear and nucleolar architecture.- 2.1 General aspects of nuclear architecture.- 2.2 Nuclear architecture and epigenetic events during replication.- 2.3 General function and structure of nucleoli.- 2.4 Conclusions and future directions.- 2.5 Acknowledgements.- 2.6 Abbreviations.- 2.7 References.- Chapter 3 rDNA and nucleologenesis in Drosophila.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Nucleolar organizers contain rDNA genes.- 3.3 The Drosophila rDNA repeat unit.- 3.4 X-Y chromosome pairing in male meiosis is mediated by the 240bp IGS repeat.- 3.5 Growth-related expression of Drosophila rDNA.- 3.6 Centric heterochromatin flanking the NORs.- 3.7 Endo-replication of Drosophila rDNA.- 3.8 The bobbed mutation and rDNA magnification.- 3.9 rDNA compensation.- 3.10 Early work on R1 and R2 retrotransposons.- 3.11 Drosophila rDNA and epigenetic effects.- 3.12 Nucleologenesis in Drosophilamelanogaster.- 3.13 Future endeavors.- 3.14 Acknowledgements.- 3.15 Abbreviations.- 3.16 References.- Chapter 4 The nucleolus of Dictyostelium and other lower eukaryotes.- 4.1 The nucleolus of Dictyostelium.- 4.1.1 Dictyostelium nucleolar structure during growth.- 4.2 Nucleolar proteins in Dictyostelium.- 4.3 The nucleolus in other lower eukaryotes.- 4.4 Conclusions.- 4.5 References.- Chapter 5 Human rDNA genes: Identification of four fractions, their functions and nucleolar location.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 The rDNA copy number in the human genome.- 5.3 Four rDNA fractions, which differ in their structure, location, and functional activity.- 5.4 Phenotypical manifestations of genomic dose of active rRNA gene copies.- 5.5 References.- Chapter 6 Chromatin organization and the mammalian nucleolus.- 6.1 Genome organization principles and nuclear architecture.- 6.2 Organization of rRNA genes in the mammalian nucleolus.- 6.3 Chromosomal constitution of the human nucleolus-associated DNA.- 6.4 Epigenomics of the nucleolus from the proteomics perspective.- 6.5 Concluding remarks.- 6.6 References.- Chapter 7 Chaperones and multitasking proteins in the nucleolus.- 7.1 Nucleolar organization, chaperones and multitasking proteins.- 7.2 Analysis of nucleolar components and functions: New quantitative tools to measure proteins and transcription in the nucleolus.- 7.3 Targeting chaperones to the nucleolus.- 7.4 Nucleolar multitasking proteins (NoMPs).- 7.5 Links between conventional chaperones and NoMPs, possible roles for chaperones in the nucleolus.- 7.6 Open questions and future directions.- 7.7 List of abbreviations.- 7.8 References.- Part III Nucleolar protein translocation.- Chapter 8 Nucleolar localization/retention signals.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Current research.- 8.3 Perspectives.- 8.4 Acknowledgments.- 8.5 References.- Chapter 9 Nucleolar transport of putative GTPase GNL1 and related proteins.- 9.1 GTPases.- 9.2 The YawG/YlqF family.- 9.3 The HSR1-MMR1 family.- 9.4 Subcellular localization and targeting of GNLs.- 9.5 Conclusion.- 9.6 References.- Chapter 10 Nucleolar protein anchoring and translocation.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Protein anchoring.- 10.3 Nucleolar proteins translocation.- 10.4 Conclusions and perspectives.- 10.5 Abbreviations.- 10.6 References.- Part IV Nucleolar proteins and disease.- Chapter 11 The nucleolus as a stress response organelle.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 The nucleolus and proteotoxic stress.- 11.3 The nucleolus, nucleolar stress and cancer.- 11.4 Models for p53 activation following nucleolar stress.- 11.5 Independent nucleolar stress pathways.- 11.6 Concluding remarks.- 11.7 Acknowledgements.- 11.8 Abbreviations.- 11.9 References.- Chapter 12 The nucleolar aspect of breast cancer.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 Association of nucleolus hypertrophy with breast cancer.- 12.3 Nucleols-associated tumour suppression.- 12.4 Oncogene-mediated increases in rRNA synthesis.- 12.5 Concluding remarks and future perspectives.- 12.6 References.- Chapter 13 Cysteine proteinase inhibitors in the nucleus and nucleolus in activated macrophages.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 Macrophages.- 13.3 Cystein proteinases in activated macrophages and their endogenous inhibitors.- 13.4 Conclusions and future directions.- 13.5 Acknowledgements.- 13.6 References.- Chapter 14 Nucleolar proteins and cancer: The roles of Aurora-A-interacting nucleolar proteins in mitosis and cancer.- 14.1 Introduction Nucleolar proteins and mitosis.- 14.2 NuSAP.- 14.3 Eg5.- 14.4 Arpc1b.- 14.5 Aurora A as a target for cancer therapy.- 14.6 Perspectives.- 14.7 Acknowledgements.- 14.8 References.- Chapter 15 Nucleolar transplantation and human embryogenesis.- 15.1 Introduction.- 15.2 Manipulating the oocyte nucleolus (NPB).- 15.3 Nucleoli (NPBs) in oocytes and zygotes and embryonic development.- 15.4 Why is the nucleolus important?.- 15.5 Can we rescue human oocytes or zygotes without or with abnormal nucleoli?.- 15.6 Conclusions.- 15.7 Acknowledgements.- 15.8 References.- Part V Conclusions.- Chapter 16 The nucleolus: From its formation to the future.- 16.1 Introduction.- 16.2 How does the nucleolus form?.- 16.3 Pathophysiology, cancer and the nucleolus.- 16.4 Nucleolar protein targeting.- 16.5 Nucleolar protein translocation.- 16.6 The value of model systems.- 16.7 New approaches to research.