In the late 1980s, Peptide Societies were established in Europe, the United States, and Japan, and more recently, in the Asian and the Pacific Rim regions including Australia, China, and Korea. At the time of the establishment of the American, European and Japanese Peptide Societies, the International Liaison Organizing Committee representing these Peptide Societies, along with the Australian Peptide Society, began discussions for holding international confer ences which would supercede or be held in lieu of the numerous individual meetings, held by the peptide societies of each individual country or region. The representative of the Chinese Peptide Society participated in these discus sion in the International Liaison Organizing Committee at the meeting of the American Peptide Symposium in Nashville, in June 1997. After lengthy discus sions over several years, we agreed to organize and host the International Peptide Symposium in Japan. The First International Peptide Symposium (IPS’97) was held on November 30–December 5, 1997, in Kyoto, and was co sponsored by four Peptide Societies. The attendance at this Symposium was 550 participants, including representatives from 32 different countries. We were very pleased with this outcome and anticipate an even larger attendance for forthcoming Symposia in future years. The revolution and advances in science and technology during the past two decades has caused traditional peptide chemistry to expand to peptide science, spreading from physical science to biology, pharmacology, and medicine.
Plenary lectures.- From big molecules to smaller ones.- Directions for solving the remaining problems in the synthesis of large peptides.- General lectures.- Peptide science: past, present and future.- Quo vadis? Where is peptide chemistry headed?.- Peptide mimetics and de novo design.- Designing peptidomimetic antagonists for peptide receptors: topochemical differences of agonists and antagonists.- Self-assembling homopolymeric peptide tapes in aqueous solution.- Peptides containing nonnatural amino acids with functional side groups.- Active carbonates of N-protected amino alcohols for synthesis of carbamate pseudopeptides.- Convenient one-pot synthesis of cystine-containing peptides from protected peptidyl resins and its application to the synthesis of bifunctional anti-HIV compounds.- Stereoselective synthesis of two type (E)-alkene dipeptide isosteres from a single substrate of ?-aziridinyl- ?,?-enoate.- Design and synthesis of conformationally constrained dipeptide containing the ?-fluoroglycine residue.- Screening of peptidomimetic tyrosine kinase inhibitors for inducing programmed cell death.- Molecular assembly of helix peptides vertically oriented on gold surface.- Gramicidin vesicles — self-assembly in water composed of gramicidin A as hydrophobic core of membrane.- Design, synthesis, and characterization of a dimeric analog of small globular protein (SGP) in solution and its biological and channel-forming activities.- Molecular design of cyclic peptides containing a non-natural amino acid: novel synthetic approach to artificial ion channels.- Structure based design and characterization of exocyclic peptidomimetics that inhibit TNF? binding to its receptor.- A three-helix bundle metallopeptide destabilized at an acidic condition.- The alamethicin-leucine zipper hybrid peptide: modulation of the assembling of transmembrane peptides through the extramembrane peptide segments.- BCvir: backbone cyclic peptide, which mimics the nuclear localization signal of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 matrix protein, inhibits nuclear import and virus production in non-dividing cells.- Self-assembling homopolymeric peptide tapes in moderately polar organic solvents.- Substrate specificities of artificial flavo-enzymes.- Catalytic activities of an artificial protein with designed loops.- Catalytic activities of an artificial heme enzyme.- A novel dioxopiperazine suitable as a ?-turn constraint.- Amphiphilic ?-structure formed by oligopeptides composed of alternating hydrophic and hydrophobic residues.- Design of cyclic antimicrobial peptides with low hemolytic activity.- Synthesis and characterization of linear and cyclic oligopeptides of 5-alkyl-substituted 3-aminobenzoic acids.- Theoretical analysis of ?????-type packing motifs formed by alternate intramolecular arrangements of three ?-helices and three ?-strands.- Theoretical analysis of ?-type packing motifs formed by intramolecular arrangements of ?- strands.- Theoretical analysis of ???-type packing motifs formed by intramolecular arrangements of two ?-helices and two ?-strands.- Self-catalytic conversion of peptides from ?-helix to ?-structural amyloid.- Design, synthesis and characterization of heme-conjugated two-?-helix peptides.- Self-assembly of heme-conjugated two-?-helix peptides.- Construction of porphyrin-binding peptides mimicking anti-heme monoclonal antibody.- Construction of cyclodextrin-peptide conjugates and their molecular sensing properties.- Interaction of bundled Ser-rich peptides with phospholipid bilayer.- Topographically designed analogues of c[d-Pen2, Pen5, Nle6] deltorphin I with stereoisomers of ?-MePhe or ?-iPrPhe in position 3.- Engineering novel mini-proteins by the transfer of active sites to small disulfide stabilized natural scaffolds.- Peptide combinatorial libraries.- Preparation of heterocyclic positional scanning combinatorial libraries from peptides.- Design and synthesis of a lactam bridge stabilized coiled-coil template for library display.- Diversity of synthetic peptides.- Manual construction of combinatorial resin bound tripeptide library (one peptide on one bead) and screening to find antioxidative peptides.- Selection of peptides that bind to ?-lactalbumin from phage display library.- Identification of a novel analgesic peptide including an unnatural amino acid from peptide libraries synthesized with a multipeptide synthesizer.- Artificial proteins screened from combinatorial chemical libraries with strong binding to double-stranded oligodeoxyribonucleotides: towards repressors to long terminal repeat controlled viral transcription.- Synthesis, conformational analysis and application of tropane-based Fmoc-amino acid derivatives: novel antagonists of fibrinogen receptor, GPIIb/IIIa.- Novel methodologies in structural analyses.- Accurate peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry.- Characterization of sulfhydryl compounds attached to the cysteinyl residue of proteins or peptides by on-line post-column derivatization.- Regioselective hydrolytic cleavage of N-terminal myristoyl-peptide.- Selective removal of pyroglutamic acid residue from biologically active pyroglutamyl-peptides by aqueous methanesulfonic acid.- Hydrolytic removal of acetyl-amino acid from acetyl- peptide in methanesulfonic acid.- Determination of the binding-site structure of the atrial natriuretic peptide receptor by stepwise-affinity alkylation.- Structure of glycoside of Bombyx mori prothoracicotropic hormone.- Photophysics of sterically constrained phenylalanines.- Addressing combinatorial and peptide analysis by using overpressured layer chromatography in comparison with high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis.- Peptides and proteins in signal transduction: Interaction with membrane receptors and intracellular role.- AVP(4–8)-induced branching signaling pathway was mediated by a putative GPCR in rat brain.- The mechanisms of exocytosis induced by neurokinin peptides in mast cells.- Effects of dynorphins on free cytoplasmic calcium concentration and insulin release in ob/ob mouse pancreatic ?-cells.- The effect of magnesium ions on the uterotonic activity of oxytocin analogs.- Human thymopoietin beta-fragments: synthesis and antibody studies.- Cholecystokinin receptor parameters responsible for specific cellular signalling.- Sweetness-suppressing activities of gurmarin analogues missing one disulfide bond.- Modeling of the somatostatin receptor (hsst3)-ligand complex.- Structural requirements of hyperalgesic nociceptin in receptor binding and activation.- Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase via epidermal growth factor receptor in isolated rat hepatocytes.- Agonist-antagonist structure-activity relationships of thrombin receptor tethered ligand peptide.- The first extracellular loop of the rat glucagon receptor contains determinants of glucagon binding.- A novel type of rat brain ? opioid receptors differenciated by cyclopropylphenylalanine-containing enkephalin analog.- Synthesis of dimeric novobiocins as chemical inducers of dimerization for DNA gyrase-fused proteins.- Computer biochemistry and molecular physiology of the natural peptide ligands: different functional groups.- Bacterial peptide pheromone is imported where it directly binds to an intracellular receptor.- Grb2 SH2 domain targeted inhibitors functioning in cellular signaling.- 74]Interaction between heat-stable enterotoxin and its receptor (guanylyl cyclase C): Influence of mutation at N-linked glycosylation sites on its ligand binding.- Receptor studies with novel insulin analogues and photoaffinity labelling techniques.- Radioligands for the receptor of mammalian melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH).- Structure, dynamics & folding of peptides and proteins.- Using peptides to study the folding of a predominantly ?-sheet protein.- ?-Helical propensity of Ala-based peptides in organic solvents.- Effects on folding properties of endothelin/apamin by incorporation of selenocysteine into their cysteine framework.- Peptide conformational behaviour studied by high and low temperature reversed phase HPLC.- Three-dimensional structure and receptor-recognition sites of bombyxin-II, an insulin-like brain-secretory peptide of the silkmoth.- C?-Methyl, C?-phenylglycine peptides.- Graphite-mimetic peptides.- The E. Fischer’s octadecapeptide revisited after 90 years.- Conformational analysis of peptide fragments corresponding to domains of potassium ion-channel proteins.- Conformation and sweet taste of l-Asp-d-Xaa-OMe dipeptides.- Conformations of four cyclic tetrapeptides containing two Pro residues.- Solution structure of the antimicrobial peptide ranalexin and a study of its interaction with dodecylphosphocholine micelles.- Formation of native disulphide bonds in endothelin-1: evidence for the involvement of a highly specific salt-bridge between the pro-sequence of endothelin-1 and mature sequence.- Structure-biological activity relationships of cecropin A (1–8)-magainin 2 (1–12) hybrid and its analogues.- Structure-activity relationship of ?agatoxin-TK, a peptide blocker of P/Q-type calcium channels.- Peptide scanning in structural -functional mapping of hemeproteins.- Structure analysis of the second transmembrane segment of the rat bradykinin receptor in solution and in micelles by CD and fluorescence spectroscopies.- Conformational analysis of antimicrobial peptide tachystatin A isolated from horseshoe crab hemocytes by two dimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy.- Solution structure of ?-conotoxin MI determined by 1H-NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation with the explicit solvent water.- Study of depsipeptide Boc-(Leu-Leu-Ala)2 -(Leu-Leu- Lac)3 -OEt forming 31 0-helix.- 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance analysis of [Ser6, Ser20]-human-Epidermal Growth Factor as a model for the intermediate of the disulfide folding pathway.- pKa shift by NH?S hydrogen bond in the hair-pin turn structure of Cys-containing oligopeptides.- Effect of environment on the stability of helical Aib-model peptides.- Structural analysis of mastoparan by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance.- Four-helix bundle formation only through special pathway via micelle state.- Synthesis of peptides containing 9-aminofluorene- 9-carboxylic acid by the modified Ugi reaction.- Effects of mutations on tetramer formation of tumor suppressor protein p53.- Disulfide-coupled folding of the circulating form of uroguanylin.- Solution structure of the extracellular domain of type-I receptor for bone morphogenetic protein-2/4 as studied by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.- Comparison of three-dimensional solution structures of dendrotoxin I, a potassium channel blocker, and calucicludine, a calcium channel blocker, determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.- Sequence, conformation, and function of peptides, retro peptides and sense and antisense gene products.- Ion conductance in a gramicidin channel: the right-handed double-stranded double-helical dimer.- Protein folding intermediates and Alzheimer’s disease.- Topological isomers of human uroguanylin: function and conversion.- Topological isomers of human uroguanylin: structure determination by nuclear magnetic resonance.- Homology modelling of the glycoprotein hormones: examination of the receptor recognition characteristics.- Structural basis of peptide-protein & peptide-DNA interactions.- Prion protein structure and pathology of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE).- Peptide nucleic acid (PNA).- Receptor based design, synthesis and biology of novel somatostatin analogs.- NMR structure of mastoparan-X bound to G protein ? subunit.- Peptides and molecular recognition: head-to-tail self-assembly, formation of amphipathic surfaces and recognition of anionic superhelices.- Non-immobilised ligand interaction assay (NILIA) — the CD approach.- Characterization and evolutionary aspect of a Trimeresurus flavoviridis serum inhibitor, PLI-I, against its venom basic phospholipase A2 isozymes.- A 24 mer peptide with activities of discrimination and recombination of nucleic acids.- Phosphorylation of synthetic peptides containing proline homologs by cdc2 kinase or cdk5.- Synthesis of oligomerization domain of p53 and its analogs and their association properties in buffer solution.- Stabilization of tyrosine-O-sulfate residues through the formation of a conjugate acid-base pair.- Circular dichroism and fluorescence study of the interaction of synthetic J protein from bacteriophage ?K with DNA.- Unusual collagen assembly induced by acidic biopolymers in vitro.- The role of nucleoplasmin — molecular chaperone protein — in the fertilization process.- Conformation of chick DNA topoisomerase I as determined by limited proteolysis.- The two adenosine triphosphate and nucleic acid binding sites of the calf thymus single-strand DNA-dependent adenosine triphosphatase.- Induced helical structure in highly charged peptides.- New biologically active peptides.- Nociceptin, a novel neuropeptide with multiple functions.- An anti-HIV peptide T22 is confirmed to be a selective CXCR4/fusin inhibitor by comparative inhibition study of a chemokine SDF-1, synthesized by regioselective disulfide bond formation.- Isolation of the nucleoplasmin-like molecular chaperone protein from salmon egg.- Study of neurotoxic peptides from Chinese scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch.- Impervious peptides as growth hormone secretagogues.- Effect of carnosine and its natural derivatives on apoptosis of neurons induced by excitotoxic compounds.- Morphological differences observed by the different modes of action of the antibacterial peptides, cecropin B and its analogs CB-1, CB-2 and CB-3 on bacterium and cancer cell.- Isolation and characterization of bioactive peptides from the sea cucumber, Stichopus japonicus.- Purification of peptide fractions with anticomplementary activity from red ginseng (Panax ginseng, C.A. Meyer).- HIV-cell fusion inhibitor, T22 ([Tyr5,12, Lys7]-polyphemusin II), and its related compounds.- Efficient analogs of an anti-HIV peptide, T22 ([Tyr5,12, Lys7]-polyphemusin II), having low cytotoxicity.- Cyclic RGD peptides with a novel mimetic.- Isolation and cDNA cloning of oryctin, a novel cysteine-rich antibacterial peptide, from the coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros.- Eumenine mastoparans. A new class of mast cell degranulating peptides in the eumenine wasp venom.- Direct evidence of the generation of lactoferricin from ingested lactoferrin.- Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif-derived peptides inhibit the viral protease and arrest virus production.- A novel cardioactive peptide of Aplysia contains a d-amino acid residue.- Purification and primary structure of four novel neuropeptides in Aplysia kwrodai.- Structure and function of fragments of antibiotic bactenecin 5.- Production of adrenomedullin in macrophages.- Adrenomedullin production in fibroblast cell lines.- Chemical and biological characterization of neuropeptides in the sinus glands of the kuruma prawn, Penaeus japonicus.- Preparation of a poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid containing two active fragments of laminin.- Modification of an anti-fungal peptide (ESF-1) for enhanced inhibitory activity and resistance to proteolysis.- Structure determination and cDNA cloning of paralytic peptide in Bombyx mori.- Isolation and characterization of a bacteriocin-like peptide produced by Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9172, an orange cheese coryneform bacterium.- Synthesis, conformational analysis, and biological activity of opioid peptide analogs containing side chain fluorinated amino acids.- Structural requirement tryptophan1,3 of tridecapeptide mating pheromone of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.- Synthesis and in vitro effects of short analogues of ?-amyloid peptide on resting transmembrane potential.- Macrotorials: synthesis and characterization of model compounds related to PTH (1–34).- Progress in peptide and protein synthesis.- Developments in peptide synthesis and peptidomimetic chemistry: HIV protease analogs and substrate-based inhibitors.- Thia zip reaction for the facile synthesis of large cyclic peptides.- Synthesis of disulfide-bridged heterotrimeric collagen peptides. Conformational properties and digestion by matrix metalloproteinases.- Combined solid-phase and solution approach to protein synthesis.- A simple linker for the attachment of aldehydes to the solid phase. Application to solid phase synthesis by the Multipin™ method.- Stereoselective synthesis of dehydroaminobutyric acid.- Efficient preparation of dehydroalanine derivatives.- Totally stereocontrolled synthetic routes for (E)-alkene dipeptide isosteres.- Synthesis of protected 2,3-epoxy amines utilizing aza-Payne rearrangement of activated 2-aziridinemethanols under basic conditions.- Convenient preparation of phosphopeptide fragments using High TFMSA system and its application to synthesis of long chain phosphopeptides.- An efficient synthesis of tryptophan-containing cystine peptide using the silyl chloride-sulfoxide system.- Synthesis of an HIV-1 protease dimer analog covalently linked by a disulfide bridge.- Enzymatic peptide synthesis using activated esters as acyl donors in organic media.- Facile synthesis of the acid-labile peptide amide linker containing the 10, 11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo [a, d] cyclohepten-5-yl group.- Synthetic approach to microsclerodermins.- Synthetic approach to caledonin, a natural bolaphile.- Synthetic approach to antillatoxin, an exceptionally ichthyotoxic cyclic lipodepsipeptide.- Desulfation vs. deprotection: direct solid-phase synthesis of Tyr(SO3 H)-containing peptides using the Sn1-type deprotection procedure.- Enzymatic syntheses of oligopeptides in organic solvents.- Studies of racemization in peptide synthesis for a phosphoryloxy-benzotriazin-one coupling reagent (DEPBT).- Effect of polyethylene glycol on the synthesis of oligopeptides by proteases in an organic medium.- Synthesis of a cyclic tetrapeptide related to trapoxin B.- Highly efficient solid phase cyclization of peptides by methylenedithioether or disulfide bond formation.- 4-(2-(1-Hydroxyethyl)-1,3-dithiacyclohex-2-yl)-phenoxyacetic acid (HETPA): photolabile linker for Fmoc solid phase synthesis.- Kinetic study of the pseudolysin-catalyzed synthesis of Z-Ala-Phe-NH2.- Solid phase peptide synthesis using 2-(4-Nitrophenyl)-sulfonylethoxycarbonyl (NSC) amino acids for Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH).- Novel synthesis through repeated S-cyanocysteine mediated segment condensations.- Total synthesis of human pleiotrophin, a 136-residue heparin-binding neurotrophic factor having five disulfide bonds.- Engineering of snake venom cardiotoxin by chemical synthesis approach.- Specificity of Cardosins A and B in peptide synthesis.- A facile preparation of 2,2-difluoro-1,3,2-oxazaborolidin- 5-ones(I) and their application to side-chain protection of Asp, Glu, Ser and Thr.- ESR-resin solvation approach for the investigation of the highly peptide-loaded synthesis protocol.- Synthesis of ?-amino phosphonic acids by catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation.- Process impurity identification in MSI-78.- Identification of unknown intermediate during methanolysis of Z-Lys (Boc)—OSu.- Synthesis of phosphorylated polypeptide by a thioester method.- Synthesis of reaper protein by a thioester method using silver chloride as an activator.- Preparation of a peptide thioester by a 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl solid phase method.- Chemical synthesis of barnase which possesses phosphoserine residue in place of the catalytic glutamic acid at position 73.- Disulfide oxidation in water: investigation of CLEAR supports for on-resin cyclization.- Glyco-, lipo-, phospho-peptides: Synthesis and biological activity.- Non-natural peptide modifications using sugars and lipophilic side chains.- Diastereoselective synthesis of glycosyl-?-aminoacids and glycopeptide derivatives.- Influence of glycation on cis/trans isomerization and tautomerization in novel morphiceptin-related Amadori compounds.- Chemoenzymatic synthesis of glycophosphopeptides.- Design and synthesis of novel Src homology-2 domain inhibitors.- Chemo-enzymatic syntheses of eel calcitonin analogs having natural N-linked oligosaccharides.- Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of bioactive peptide derivatives containing N-linked oligosaccharides.- Optimization of N,N?-dialkyldiamide-type phosphate protecting group for phosphopeptide synthesis.- Solid phase synthesis of O-glycopeptide — Preparation of O -(N-acetylgalactosaminyl)-threonine derivative and its application to peptide synthesis.- Nonpeptide antagonists of peptide receptors.- Design of novel, nonpeptide oxytocin receptor antagonists.- Development of potent non-peptide GPIIb/IIIa antagonists with tri-substituted ?-amino acid derivatives as a new conformational restriction unit.- Protease inhibitors: Biology and inhibition.- Design and synthesis of potent and selective inhibitors of the osteoclast-specific cysteine protease, cathepsin K.- Difference of structural requisite in design of inhibitor of cathepsin B and papain: X-ray crystal structures of complexes.- Synthesis of peptides with aziridine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid as an ?-amino acid equivalent building block.- Isolation and characterization of prolyl endopeptidase-inhibiting peptides from bovine brain.- Structure based design and synthesis of novel orally active thrombin inhibitors.- Design of bivalent plasmin inhibitors.- Suicide-inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 protease by the gag precursor processing product (p2gag peptide).- Design of plasma kallikrein selective inhibitor and its application to affinity chromatography.- Structural essentials for novel inhibition of serine protease chymotrypsin.- KNI-764, A novel dipeptide-based HIV protease inhibitor containing allophenylnorstatine.- Self-association of cystatin.- The substrate specificity of microbial carboxyl proteinases.- Allophenylnorstatine containing HIV-1 protease inhibitors: design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships for selected P2 and P2? ligands.- Allophenylnorstatine containing HIV-1 protease inhibitors: design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships for selected P2 ligands.- Peptide pharmacology potential therapeutic application.- Opioid peptide analogs with novel activity profiles as potential therapeutic agents for use in analgesia.- Peptide radiopharmaceuticals: studies of somatostatin receptors and ligands for tumor targeting.- Fatty acid acylated insulins display protracted action due to binding to serum albumin.- Melanotropin fragments containing difluoromethylornithine: synthesis and cytotoxicity.- Synthesis of RANTES-related peptides and their effect on human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection.- The influence of structural motifs of amphipathic peptides on the permeabilization of lipid bilayers and the antibacterial and hemolytic activity.- Proline at position 14 of alamethicin is essential for the hemolytic activity, catecholamine secretion from chromaffin cells and enhanced metabolic activity in endothelial cells.- Enkephalin metabolism in rat brain after bestatin administration.- Synthetic antibacterial peptides derived from insect defensin isolated from a beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma.- Do peptide antioxidants increase neuron viability by direct antioxidant effect?.- Synthesis and characterization of ?-conotoxin TxVII.- Design and synthesis of antifungal lactoferricin derivatives.- Incorporation of the nuclear localization signal (NLS) peptide-albumin conjugate to macrophages using pH-sensitive liposomes.- Dermorphin-dynorphin hybrid analogs: Opioid receptor selection and enzymatic stability.- Selective cytotoxicity of dermaseptins.- Synergism of antimicrobial peptides, magainin 2 and PGLa, in liposomes.- Cell specific gene transfer using galactose-modified peptide.- Synthesis and biological activities of hPTH)1—34) analogues: modification of the middle part and C-terminal alkylamides.- Absolute importance of arginine residue at position 7 of dog neuromedin U-8 for contractile activity.- Cyclic peptides having inhibitory site of ?-amylase inhibitor tendamistat.- Doxorubicin liposomal preparations coated with Laminin related peptides.- Importance of hydrophobic region in cationic peptides on gene transfer into cells and enhance effect of lysosome-disruptive peptide.- Synthesis and pharmacological properties of oxytocin antagonists containing conformationally constrained amino acids.- Identification of the structural elements responsible for high biological activity of dimeric opioid peptide biphalin.- Orally active memory-enhancing peptides obtained by designing bioactive peptides derived from food proteins.- Dimers of bradykinin and substance P antagonists as potential anti-cancer drugs.- Emerging functions and peptides.- Ovine Leydig cell insulin-like peptide: a sheep relaxin?.- Self-assembling peptides in biology, materials science and engineering.- Hybridization properties of nucleic acid analogs bearing peptide backbone.- Copper(II) complexes of the modified ACTH active center analogue hexapeptides — investigation by means of CD spectroscopy.- The structure—activity relationships of the sweet protein brazzein — roles of acidic amino acids.- Asymmetric synthesis of ?-amino acids: Dynamic kinetic resolution utilizing 2-oxoimidazolidine-4-carboxylate as a chiral auxiliary.- The function and insertion of a d-Serine residue in ?- agatoxin-TK.- Physiological role of the delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP).- Comparison of secondary structure and antibacterial activity of bactericidal peptides derived from bovine and Korean native goat lactoferrin.- Synthesis of enantiomerically pure non proteinogenic ?-amino acids.- Improvements of activity and stability against proteases of biologically active peptides by coupling of a cyclic peptide derived from an endothelin antagonist RES-701-1.- Structure-activity relationship of cyclic depsipeptides, AM-toxin analogs.- Effects of chemical modification of Ca2+-dependent lectin CEL-III on its hemolytic and carbohydrate-binding activities.- Coacervation of elastomeric polypeptides: microscopic observations and light scattering measurements.- Preparation and properties of novel gramicidin S analogs possessing a polymethylene bridge between ornithine side chains.- Effect of nitroprusside on amyloid peptide induced inhibition of MTT reduction in pheochromocytoma PC12h and C1300 neuroblastoma cells.- Practical approach to enzymatic resolution of Fmoc- and Boc-protected amino acid racemates.- Rapid translocation of amphipathic ?helical and ?-sheet-forming peptides through plasma membranes of endothelial cells.- Peptides in immunology/peptide vaccines.- Peptide analogues as vaccines and immunomodulators.- Combinatorial peptide libraries and molecular recognition in T-cell mediated immune response.- On the puzzle of the acute phase reactants C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A.- Design of peptidic and non-peptidic CD4 inhibitors as novel immunotherapeutic agents [1–5].- Molecular design of T cell-costimulatory peptides for vaccine development.- The identification of dominant epitopes of h-FKBP-12 recognized by monoclonal antibodies, 3F4 and 2C1, against h-FK-506 binding protein 12(h-FKBP-12).- Contribution of peptide backbone atoms to binding of an antigenic peptide to class I major histocompatibility complex molecule.- B cell and T cell epitopes of Der f 2, a house dust mite major allergen of the Dermatophagoides farinae.- Conformational and binding studies of the peptide isolated from phage display library by anti-mouse CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody.- Formation of DNA-anti-DNA antibody immune complex on collagen matrix.- Natural IgM antibodies against human endogenous retroviruses HERV-H demonstrated by means of synthetic peptides.- Evaluation of region-specific antibodies for rat and human Chromogranin A with use of synthetic peptide.- Design of synthetic antigen containing non-immunogenic T cell epitope core and simple non-native flanking regions.- Immune response to newly exposed regions of Band 3 protein of the red blood cell membrane during malaria infections.- Peptide-induced antibodies as a tool to link genomes and proteomes.- Porphyrin-peptide conjugates with stabilized helices and sheets.- Molecular recognition of cyclic HIV protease inhibitors: highly orally-bioavailable DMP851.