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As an addition to the European postgraduate training system for young neurosurgeons, we began to publish in 1974 this series of Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery which was later sponsored by the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies. This series was first discussed in 1972 at a combined meeting of the Italian and German Neurosurgical Societies in Taormina, the founding fathers of the series being Jean Brihaye, Bernard Pertuiset, Fritz Loew and Hugo Krayenbuhl. Thus were established the principles of European co operation which have been born from the European spirit, flourished in the European Association, and have been associated throughout with this senes. The fact that the English language is now the international medium for communication at European scientificconferences is a great asset in terms of mutual understanding. Therefore we have decided to publish all contri butions in English, regardless of the native language of the authors. All contributions are submitted to the entire editorial board before publication of any volume for scrutiny and suggestions for revision. Our series is not intended to compete with the publications of original scientificpapers in other neurosurgical journals. Our intention is, rather, to present fields of neurosurgery and related areas in which important recent advances have been made. The contributions are written by specialists in the given fieldsand constitute the first part of each volume.
A. Advances.- Recent Advances in Stem Cell Neurobiology.- Abstract.- to Stem Cell Nomenclature.- Early Neural Development and Origins of Embryonic Stem (ES) Cells.- Origin and Culture of ES cells.- Manipulation of ES cells as a Source of Neural Precursors for Transplantation.- Transplantation of ES cells.- Neural Precursors and Stem Cells from the Developing Embryonic CNS.- Origins of Neural Precursor Cells and Methods of Study in Vitro.- Epigenetic and Genetic Interventions for the Expansion of Rodent Neural Precursors in Vitro.- Methods for Propagation of Human Neural Precursors.- Directed Differentiation of Neural Precursors and Induction of Neural Phenotypes.- Transplantation of Neural Precursors using Experimental Model Systems.- Transplantation into the Embryonic and Neonatal CNS.- Transplantation into the Adult Mammalian Brain.- Transplantation of Rodent Neural Precursors.- Transplantation of Human Neural Precursors.- Immunological Considerations and Stem Cell Graft Rejection.- Neural Precursors as Cellular Vectors for Gene Delivery to the CNS.- Neural Stem Cells in the Adult Mammalian Brain.- Origins of the Adult-Derived Neural Stem Cell.- Physiological Significance of Adult Neural Stem Cells.- Plasticity of Adult Stem Cells.- Clinical Applications.- Commercial, Ethical and Legislative Considerations.- Glossary of Terms.- Acknowledgements.- References.- Mapping of the Neuronal Networks of Human Cortical Brain Functions.- Abstract.- Principles and Methodology.- Event-Related fMRI.- Electromagnetic Source Imaging.- Number of Recording Channels.- Source Localisation.- Intracranial Evoked Potentials.- Functional Maps.- Higher Order Visual Perception and Cognition.- Perception.- Face Recognition.- Mental Imagery.- Calculation.- Reasoning.- Stimulus Detection.- Executive Functions.- Language.- Memory.- Short-Term Memory.- Working Memory.- Long-Term Memory.- Attention.- Perspectives and Conclusions.- Acknowledgements.- References.- B. Technical Standards.- B. Technical Standards Cerebral Revascularization.- List of Abbreviations.- Abstract.- Historical Perspective.- Vascular Anastomoses.- Cerebral Revascularization.- The EC/IC Bypass Study.- Advances.- Conclusion.- Laboratory Training.- Experimental Anastomoses.- SEM Evaluation of Anastomoses.- Laboratory Procedures.- In Vitro Model Training.- In Vivo Model Training on the Rat.- Cadaver Training.- Learning the ELANA Technique.- In Vitro Model Training.- In Vivo Model Training on the Rabbit.- Pre-Operative Management.- Possible Indications.- Symptomatic Cerebral Ischemia.- Anterior Circulation.- The EC/IC Bypass Study (Again).- Searching the Subgroup.- Posterior Circulation.- Case Reports.- Clinical Series.- Intracranial Aneurysms.- Proximal Ligation of the Parent Vessels.- Anterior Circulation.- Case Reports.- Clinical Series.- Posterior Circulation.- Other Vascular Lesions.- Arterial Dissections.- Venous Reconstruction.- Moya-Moya Syndrome.- Bypass Surgery in Childhood and Adolescence.- Cranial Base Tumors.- Diagnostic Procedures.- Angiography.- TCD.- MRF.- CBF.- Pre-Operative Selection of Vessels.- Direct Reconstruction by Anastomosis or Graft.- Indirect Revascularization by Anastomosis or Graft.- Selection of Graft.- Surgical Procedures.- Anesthesia and Intra-Operative Monitoring.- Hypothermic Techniques.- Intra-Operative Angiography.- Doppler and Ultrasound Techniques.- Operative Position and Approaches.- Graft Preparation.- Using Papaverin or Not.- Distension and Spasm of the Vein.- Donor Vessel Preparation.- Recipient Vessel Preparation.- Indirect Revascularization.- Indirect Revascular ization Using the ELANA Technique.- Abstract.- Methods.- Animal Experiments.- Patients.- Results.- Patients.- Discussion.- Future Developments for the ELANA Technique.- Intra-Operative Complications.- Post-Operative Complications.- Technical Complications.- Early Graft Thrombosis.- Late Occlusion.- Tunnel Related Problems.- Cerebral Ischemia.- Rupture of Aneurysms in Aneurysm Surgery.- General Neurosurgical Complications.- Conclusions.- References.- Relative Indications for Radiosurgery and Microsurgery for Acoustic Schwannoma.- Abstract.- Historical Overview.- The Debate.- Technique.- The Gamma Knife.- Physics and Imaging.- Biology.- The Other Devices.- LINAC.- Others.- The Marseille Gamma Knife Experience.- Results after Gamma Knife.- Imaging Outcome.- Volume Changes.- Changes in Tissue Characteristics.- Failures.- Clinical Outcome.- Complications Including Mortality.- Facial Nerve.- Cochlear Nerve.- Functional Results and Quality of Life.- Neurofibromatosis 2.- Results with Other Devices.- Indications.- The Status of the Patient.- The Natural History of Vestibular Schwannoma and the Stage of the Specific Case.- The Physical Limitations of Radiosurgery.- Recommended Protocols for Patient Management.- Unilateral Schwannoma.- Type II Neurofibromatosis.- One Ear is Deaf.- The two Ears are Deaf.- The two Ears are still Hearing.- Tumours are Little and the Pons is not Deformed or Only Slightly.- Both Tumours are Large.- One Tumour is Large, the Other Small.- Recurrences and Post-Operative Residual Tumours.- Conclusion.- References.- Comments.- References.- The Management of Brain Abscesses.- Historical Perspective.- Epidemiology.- Pathogenesis.- Pathology.- Microbiology.- Clinical Picture.- Laboratory Findings.- Diagnostic Imaging.- Treatment.- Antibiotic Therapy.- Surgical Management.- Management.- Management of Multiple Abscesses.- Patients with AIDS.- Complications.- Prognosis.- Conclusions.- References.- Surgical Anatomy of the Temporal Lobe for Epilepsy Surgery.- Summary.- Descriptive Anatomy.- The Neocortical Temporal Lobe.- The Mesial Temporal Lobe.- The Association Fibers.- Short Association Fibers.- Long Ipsihemispheric Association Fascicles.- Interhemispheric Commissural Systems.- The Projection Fibers.- Functional Anatomy.- Cortical Areas.- Limbic System.- Vascular Anatomy.- Arterial Relationships.- Veins.- Anatomical Characteristics of the Various Modalities of Temporal Resections.- Conclusion.- References.