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Medicine - Surgery | Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery

Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery

Cohadon, F., Dolenc, V.V., Antunes, J.L., Pickard, J.D., Reulen, H.-J., Sindou, M., Strong, A.J., Tribolet, N. de, Tulleken, C.A.F., Vapalahti, M.

2000, XVI, 346 pp. 83 partly coloured figs.

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As an addition to the European postgraduate training system for young neurosurgeons we began to publish in 1974 this series of Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery which was later sponsored by the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies. This series was first discussed in 1972 at a combined meeting of the Italian and German Neurosurgical Societies in Taormina, the founding fathers of the series being Jean Brihaye, Bernard Pertuiset, Fritz Loew and Hugo Krayenbiihl. Thus were established the principles of European co­ operation which have been born from the European spirit, flourished in the European Association, and have throughout been associated with this series. The fact that the English language is well on the way to becoming the international medium at European scientific conferences is a great asset in terms of mutual understanding. Therefore we have decided to publish all contributions in English, regardless of the native language of the authors. All contributions are submitted to the entire editorial board before publi­ cation of any volume. Our series is not intended to compete with the publications of original scientific papers in other neurosurgical journals. Our intention is, rather, to present fields of neurosurgery and related areas in which important recent advances have been made. The contributions are written by specialists in the given fields and constitute the first part of each volume.

Content Level » Professional/practitioner

Keywords » CNS Lymphomas - Callosotomy - Extracranial Arteries - Hemispherotomy - Intracranial Venous System - Lumbar Spondylolisthesis - Surgery - neurosurgery - technical standards

Related subjects » Neurology - Oncology & Hematology - Pathology - Radiology - Surgery

Table of contents 

A. Advances.- Multiple Subpial Transection.- Theoretical Basis.- Indications.- In Relation to Eloquent Cortex.- In Relation to Landau-Kleffner Syndrome.- The Methohexital Suppression Test.- The Intra-Carotid Sodium Amytal Test.- Intracranial Recording.- In Relation to Multi-Focal and Multi-Lobar Epilepsy.- Technique.- Outcome.- Outcome from Operation in Eloquent Areas.- Outcome in Rasmussen’s Disease.- Outcome in Landau Kleffner Syndrome.- Outcome from Multi-Lobar and Multi-Focal Epilepsy.- Discussion.- Conclusion.- References.- Hemispheric Disconnection: Callosotomy and Hemispherotomy.- Corpus Callosotomy.- Historical Perspectives.- Rationale for Corpus Callosotomy.- Indications for Corpus Callosotomy.- Preoperative Evaluation.- Surgical Techniques.- Surgical Complications.- Functional Complications.- Seizure Outcome.- Hemispherotomy.- Historical Background.- Techniques of Hemispherectomy.- Anatomical Hemispherectomy.- Hemidecortication.- Modified Hemispherectomy.- Functional Hemispherectomy.- Hemispheric Disconnection.- Hemispherotomy.- Indications for Hemispherectomy.- Seizures: Intractability and Types.- Neurological Status.- Etiological Factors.- Electroencephalography.- Radiological Investigation.- Techniques.- The Vertical Approach.- The Lateral Approach.- Results.- Complications.- Psychosocial Outcome.- Seizures Outcome.- Conclusion.- References.- Central Nervous System Lymphomas.- Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (PCL).- Epidemiology.- Clinical Forms.- Anatomo-Radiological Types.- Intracerebral Parenchymal Localisation.- Meningo-Encephalic Form.- Purely Meningeal Involvement.- Spinal Lymphoma.- Rare Clinical Forms.- Ocular Lymphoma.- Histopathological Data.- Diagnosis.- Diagnostic Tools.- Cerebral Biopsy.- CSF Examination.- Vitrectomy and Retineal Biopsy.- Diagnostic Problems.- Differential Diagnosis with Neurological Diseases.- Staging of Disease.- Steroid Sensitivity: Diagnostic and Prognostic Implications.- Management.- Prognostic Factors.- Treatment.- Surgery.- Radiation Therapy.- Chemotherapy.- Others CNS Lymphomas.- Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.- Hodgkin’s Disease.- Mycosis Fungoides.- Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis.- Intravascular Lymphomatosis.- Benign Lymphoid Masses.- CNS Lymphoma in Immunocompromised Patients.- Conclusions.- Invited Commentary: Treatment of Diseases of the Central Nervous System Using Encapsulated Cells, by A. F. Hottinger and P. Aebischer (Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery Vol. 25).- B. Technical Standards.- The Intracranial Venous System as a Neurosurgeon’s Perspective.- Foreword.- Basic Readings Concerning Intracranial Venous System.- Anatomy.- Radiology.- Physiology.- References on Excluded Topics.- Cranial Injuries Involving Major Dural Sinuses.- Carotido-Cavernous Fistulas.- Dural Arterio-Venous Fistulas.- The Venous Drainages of Arterio-Venous Malformations.- Venous Angiomas (Developmental Venous Anomalies).- Parasellar Tumors Invading the Cavernous Sinus.- Chemodectomas of Jugular Foramen.- Venous Thromboses.- Benign Intracranial Hypertension.- The “Dangerous” Venous Structures.- Dural Sinuses.- The Superior Sagittal Sinus (SSS).- The Lateral Sinuses (LS).- Superfical Veins.- Midline Afferent Veins to the SSS (and Trolard Vein).- Inferior Cerebral Veins (and Labbé Vein).- Sylvian Veins (and Superficial Sylvian Vein).- Risks when Sacrificing Superfical Veins.- Deep Veins.- The Vein of Galen and the Straight Sinus.- The Deep Veins.- The Deep Venous Territories.- Risks in Thromboses or Occlusions of the Vein of Galen and Main Tributaries.- Veins of Posterior Fossa.- The Brain stem is Drained by two Lateral Collectors.- Each Cerebellar Hemisphere has Schematically Three Venous Territories.- The Vermis has two Territories.- The Posterior Fossa Collectors have rich Anastomoses.- The Major Dural Sinuses of Posterior Fossa (Transverse, Sigmoid) are very “Dangerous” Structures.- Risks of Venous Sacrifices.- The Venous Territories.- Venous System Modified by Pathology and Treatments.- Imaging of the Intracranial Venous System.- Pathological Consequences of Venous Occlusions.- Pathological Consequences of Acute Occlusion (or Injury) of the Cerebral Veins.- Pathological Consequences of Chronic Occlusion of the Intracranial Venous System.- Venous Problems Encountered During Surgical Approaches.- General Problems.- Intracranial Venous Pressure in Relation with Positioning.- Prevention and Control of Air Embolism.- Prevention and Control of Venous Bleeding.- Avoidance of Excessive Retraction.- Preservation of Bridging or Superfical Veins.- Reconstruction Techniques of the Bridging Veins.- “Taking Care with the Venous Dangers at the End of the Surgery”.- Post-Operative Anticoagulation.- Particularities According to the Various Approaches.- Interhemispheric Approaches.- Fronto-Pteriono-Temporal Approaches.- Subtemporal Approaches.- Suboccipital Retrosigmoid Approaches.- Presigmoid Retrolabyrinthine Approaches.- Approaches of the Pineal Region and Posterior Part of the Third Ventricle.- Transventricular Approaches.- Surgery of Tumors Invading the Major Venous Structures.- Meningiomas Involving the Major Dural Sinuses.- Preoperative Investigations.- Indications.- Surgical Technique.- Post Operative Care.- Patency.- Conclusions.- Pineal Region Tumors Involving Vein of Galen.- Infratentorial Supracerebellar Approach.- Occipital Transtentorial Approach.- Surgical Interventions in Thromboses and Occlusions of the Intracranial Venous System.- Interventional Treatments for Acute Intracranial Venous Thromboses.- Medical Management.- Local Thrombolysis by Interventional Procedures.- Conclusions.- Surgical Restoration of Venous Flow for Treatment of Intracranial Hypertension Resulting from Venous Occlusions.- Surgical Technique of Sino-Jugular Bypass.- Results.- Conclusions and Discussion.- General Conclusions.- References.- Reconstructive Surgery of the Extracranial Arteries.- Summary.- Carotid Endarterectomy.- The Natural History of Carotid Artery Disease.- Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Disease.- Symptomatic Carotid Artery Disease.- Clinical Trials.- Carotid Endarterectomy Trials in Asymptomatic Patients.- Carotid Endarterectomy Trials in Symptomatic Patients.- Emerging Indications and Contraindications: Guidelines for Carotid Endarterectomy.- The AHA Guidelines for Patients with Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Disease.- The AHA Guidelines for Patients with Symptomatic Carotid Artery Disease.- Preoperative Management.- General Evaluation and Risk Assessment.- Imaging.- Medication.- Timing of Surgery.- Special Considerations.- Intraoperative Management.- Anaesthesia.- Intraoperative Monitoring.- Intraoperative Anticoagulation.- Postoperative Management.- ICU Monitoring.- Hospitalization.- Outpatient and Follow-up.- Surgical Controversies and Special Considerations.- Microsurgical Versus Conventional Surgical Technique.- Intraoperative Shunting: Always, Sometimes or Never?.- Patch Grafting: When to do it and What to use?.- Recurrent Carotid Stenosis.- Eversion Technique for Carotid Endarterectomy.- Tacking Sutures.- Intraluminal Thrombus.- Tandem Lesions of the Carotid Siphon.- Pseudo-Occlusion or Small Distal Internal Carotid Artery.- Complete Carotid Occlusion.- Carotid Stump Syndrome.- Elongated Internal Carotid Artery with Angulation or Kinking.- Contralateral Carotid Artery Occlusion.- Bilateral Carotid Endarterectomy.- The Operative Procedure: Step by Step.- Positioning.- Skin Incision.- Carotid Exposure.- Cross-Clamping.- Arteriotomy.- Selective Shunt Placement.- Endarterectomy.- Arteriotomy Closure.- Recirculation.- Wound Closure.- Complications and their Avoidance.- Surgical Complications.- Medical Complications.- Future Perspectives.- Carotid Angioplasty and Stenting Versus Carotid Endarterectomy.- Minimal Invasive Microsurgery.- Quality Control.- Personal Results.- Cervical Vertebral (VA) and Subclavian Artery (SA) Reconstructions.- Comparison of Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA) and Open Surgery.- Results of Surgical SA Reconstructions.- Results of Proximal VA Reconstructions.- Results of Revascularization of the Distal VA.- Results of PTA and Stenting for the Proximal VA and SA.- Surgical Indications and Manoeuvres.- Surgical Indications.- Approach to the Proximal SA and VA.- Technique of the S A/CCA Transposition.- CCA/SA Bypass.- VA/CCA Transposition.- Revascularization of the Distal VA.- Monitoring for Posterior Circulation Revascularization.- Personal Results.- Proximal VA/SA Reconstructions.- Distal VA Reconstructions.- Future Perspectives.- Selected Abbreviations and Acronyms.- References.- Surgical Treatment of Lumbar Spondylolisthesis.- Abstract.- Historical Overview.- Definition of Spinal Instability.- Degenerative Spondylolisthesis.- Isthmic Spondylolisthesis.- Spinal Navigation.- Additional Interbody Fusion.- Need for Laminectomy with Degenerative Spondylolisthesis.- Senior Author’s Experience.- Conclusion.- References.

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