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As an addition to the European postgraduate training system for young neurosurgeons we began to publish in 1974 this series of Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery which was later sponsored by the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies. This series was first discussed in 1972 at a combined meeting of the Italian and German Neurosurgical Societies in Taormina, the founding fathers of the series being Jean Brihaye, Bernard Pertuiset, Fritz Loew and of European co Hugo Krayenbtihl. Thus were established the principles operation which have been born from the European spirit, flourished in the European Association, and have throughout been associated with this series. The fact that the English language is well on the way to becoming the international medium at European scientific conferences is a great asset in terms of mutual understanding. Therefore we have decided to publish all contributions in English, regardless of the native language of the authors. All contributions are submitted to the entire editorial board before publi cation of any volume. Our series is not intended to compete with the publications of original scientific papers in other neurosurgical journals. Our intention is, rather, to present fields of neurosurgery and related areas in which important recent advances have been made. The contributions are written by specialists in the given fields and constitute the first part of each volume.
A. Advances.- Treatment of Diseases of the Central Nervous System Using Encapsulated Cells.- Brain and Immunity.- Encapsulation of Cells.- Chromaffin Cells for Pain Relief.- Chromaffin Cells in Animal Models.- Chromaffin Cells in Clinical Studies.- Neurotrophic Factors in Neurodegenerative Diseases.- Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.- Models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.- Clinical Trials in ALS.- Future Approaches.- Conclusion.- Acknowledgments.- References.- Intracranial Endoscopy.- Summary.- Historical Perspective of Neuroendoscopy.- Endoscopic Equipment for Neurosurgery.- Endoscopes.- Instruments Used During Endoscopic Procedures.- Fixation Devices for Neuroendoscopes.- Equipment for Observation and Documentation of Endoscopic Images.- Surgical Techniques and Indications of Intracranial Neuroendoscopy.- Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy and Endoscopic Pellucidotomy.- Endoscopic Evacuation of Third Ventricle Colloid Cysts.- Endoscopic Fenestration of Arachnoid Cysts.- Endoscopic Evacuation of Intracranial Hematomas.- Endoscopic Treatment of Intracranial Tumors.- Endoscope-Assisted Microneurosurgery.- Significance of Reduction of Intraoperative Traumatization.- Endoscope-Assisted Tumor Surgery.- Endoscope-Assisted Aneurysm Surgery.- Endoscope-Assisted Microvascular Decompression.- Possible Future Development of Intracranial Neuroendoscopy.- Neuroendoscopy with Neuronavigation and Intraoperative Imaging.- Biportal Endomicrosurgery.- References.- Chronic Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders.- History and Evolution of Methods.- Rebirth of Stereotaxy and Development of Chronic Deep Brain Stimulation in the Treatment of Movement Disorders.- The Transient Decline of Surgical Treatment.- The Discovery of Electrical Stimulation Effect.- Physiological Basis: Mechanisms of Motor Disorders.- The Basal Ganglia Related System.- The Basal Ganglia System.- The Basal Ganglia Connections.- Thalamic Situation Inside the Basal Ganglia Circuitry.- Thalamic Subdivisions Involved in Motor System.- The Linkage of the Basal Ganglia System with Cerebellum.- Evidence of Basal Ganglia System Dysfunction in Motor Disorders.- Clinico-Pathological Studies.- Biochemical Overview.- Experimental Data.- Metabolic Studies.- Neurophysiological Substratum for Subthalamic Nucleus Stimulation.- Unresolved Problems.- Technical Overview of Chronic Deep Brain Stimulation.- Methods: Stereotactic Procedure.- Localization of Stereotactic Targets.- Localization of V.im. Nucleus.- Ventriculography.- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).- Electrophysiology.- Localization of the Subthalamic Nucleus.- Ventriculography.- MRI.- Electrophysiology.- Localization of the GPi (Globus Pallidus, pars Interna).- Ventriculography.- MRI.- Electrophysiology.- Neurophysiological Explorations.- Chronic Electrode Insertion.- The Post Stereotactic Period.- Which Target for which Symptom(s)?.- Why is V.im. the Target in Tremor?.- Other Targets.- Why is STN the Target in Akinesia?.- Why is GPi the Target in Levodopa Induced Dyskinesia?.- Chronic Deep Brain Stimulation for which Disease?.- Parkinson’s Disease.- Essential Tremor.- Dystonia.- Other Movements Disorders.- Indications and Results.- Patients Selection.- V.im. Stimulation.- STN Stimulation.- GPi Stimulation.- Results.- The Grenoble Experience.- Complications and Side Effects.- Benefits.- The Lille Experience.- Stimulation of V.im..- Stimulation of Ventro-Postero-Lateral Nucleus of the Thalamus.- Comparison of Lille Versus Grenoble Results and Correlation with Electrodes Location.- The Creteil Experience.- Clinical Assessment.- Discussion.- Precise Methodology.- Clinical Requirements.- Technical Considerations.- Costs.- Chronic Deep Brain Stimulation (CDBS) Versus Ablative Surgery.- Advantages and Drawbacks.- Thalamotomy.- Pallidotomy.- Neural Transplantation.- Why Should Chronic Deep Brain Stimulation be Preferred to Lesion?.- What is the Structure its Stimulation Induces Tremor Arrest?.- Is it to V.im. Stimulation?.- Is it due to Cerebellar Afferences Stimulation?.- Is it due to Central Complex Stimulation?.- Mechanisms of Action.- Effect of Stimulation on V.im. Cells: Is the Mechanism Augmentive or Suppressive?.- The Concept of Jamming.- Effect of Stimulation on STN Cells.- Effects of Stimulation on GPi Cells.- The Future of the Method: Long Term Perspectives.- Do Other Targets Exist?.- Are they Other Indications than Parkinson’s Disease.- Conclusion.- References.- Chronic Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders.- Comments.- B. Technical Standards.- Recent Advances in the Treatment of Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors.- Diagnosis.- Germinomas.- Surgery.- Radiation Therapy.- Radiation Dose.- Radiation Volume and Technique.- Chemotherapy.- Teratomas.- Highly Malignant Subtypes.- Conclusion.- References.- Hypothalamic Gliomas.- Anatomy and Physiology of the Hypothalamus.- Hypothalamic Syndromes.- The Ventro-Medial Hypothalamic Syndrome.- The Lateral Hypothalamic Syndrome.- The Diencephalic Syndrome of Infancy.- The Anterior Hypothalamic Syndrome.- Cushing’s Ulcer.- Diencephalic “Epilepsy”.- Disorders of Thermoregulation.- Disorders of States of Wakefulness.- Visual Impairment Related to Hypothalamic Lesions.- Hydrocephalus Related to Hypothalamic Lesions.- The Diagnostic Procedures.- Surgical Approaches.- The Interhemispheric-Transcallosal Approach.- Immediate Postoperative Intensive Care.- Later Postoperative Treatment.- Results.- Discussion.- References.- Surgical Approaches to the Anterior Fossa, and Preservation of Olfaction.- Anatomical Study.- Material and Methods.- Morphological Study.- Blood Supply.- Relationship with the Anterior Cranial Fossa.- The Olfactory Bulb.- The Olfactory Tract.- The Cerebral Relationship.- Conclusion.- Surgical Techniques.- Anterior Transcranial Approaches or Superior Approaches.- The Frontal Transsinus Approach.- History.- The Approach.- The Intradural Exploration.- Reconstruction.- The Suprasinus Transfrontal Approach.- The Frontobasal Approach.- The Anterolateral Transcranial Approach.- Transfacial or Inferior Approaches.- The Paralateronasal Approach.- The Transethmoidal Approach.- The Midfacial Degloving Procedure.- The Transrhinoseptal Approach.- Endoscopic Surgery by the Endonasal Approach.- Advantages and Disadvantages.- The Transbasal or Combined Approaches.- Craniofacial Exposure by Combined Approach.- Craniofacial Exposure by a Unique Approach.- The Fronto-Orbital Extension.- The Fronto-Orbito-Nasal Extension.- Preservation of Olfaction.- Advantages and Disadvantages.- Surgical Techniques: Discussion.- Clinical Applications.- In Trauma to the Anterior Cranial Fossa.- In Tumoral Pathology of the Anterior Cranial Fossa.- In Vascular Pathology.- Clinical Applications of Endoscopic Surgery by Endonasal Approach.- Discussion.- Conclusion.- References.- Listed in Index Medicus.