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Medicine - Surgery | Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery - Volume 34

Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery

Volume 34

Pickard, J.D., Akalan, N., Di Rocco, C., Dolenc, V.V., Lobo Antunes, J., Mooij, J.J.A., Schramm, J., Sindou, M. (Eds.)

2009, XIII, 209 p.

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Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery was conceived in 1972byitsfoundingfathersJeanBrihaye,BernardPertuiset,FritzLoew € andHugoKrayenbuuhlatacombinedmeetingoftheItalianandGerman NeurosurgicalSocietiesinTaormina. Itwasdesignedtocomplementthe Europeanpost-graduatetrainingsystemforyoungneurosurgeonsandwas ?rst published in 1974 initially through sponsorship by the European AssociationofNeurosurgicalSocieties. Allcontributionshavebeenp- lishedinEnglishtofacilitateinternationalunderstanding. Theambitionofallsuccessiveeditorialboardshasbeentoprovidean opportunityformaturescholarshipandre?ection,notconstrainedbyar- ?ciallimitsonspace. Theseriesprovidesaremarkableaccountofprogress overthepast35years,bothwithregardtoadvances,detaileddescriptions of standard operative procedures and in- depth reviews of established knowledge. Thepresentvolumeisnoexceptionandshouldappealtoboth experiencedneurosurgeonsandyoungneurosurgeonsintrainingalike. TheEditors Contents Listofcontributors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIII Advances Present and potential future adjuvant issues in high-grade astrocytic glioma 1,2 1 1 2 1 treatment. F. LEFRANC ,M. RYNKOWSKI,O. DEWITTE,andR. KISS, Department ofNeurosurgery,ErasmeUniversityHospital,FreeUniversityofBrussels(U. L. B. ), 2 Brussels,Belgium, LaboratoryofToxicology,InstituteofPharmacy,FreeUniversity ofBrussels(U. L. B. ),Brussels,Belgium Abstract. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Naturalresistanceofmigratingmalignantgliomacellstoapoptosis (radiotherapyandchemotherapy). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Patternsofcelldeath. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Autophagy:apotentialTrojanhorseformalignantgliomas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Therapeuticbene?tsoftemozolomide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Localtherapiesforglioblastomas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Ongoingclinicaltrialsforglioblastomas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Growthfactorreceptorinhibitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 PI3K=Akt,mTORandNF- Binhibitors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Matrixmetalloproteinase(MMP)inhibitors(MMPI). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Angiogenesistargeting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Cellularandvaccinationtherapies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Genetherapy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Reducingmalignantgliomacellmotilityinordertorestore pro-apoptoticdrugsensitivity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Thesodiumpumpconstitutesapotentialtargettocombat malignantgliomas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Thesodiumpump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Cardiotonicsteroids:ligandsofthesodiumpump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 VIII Contents Thesodiumpumpisinvolvedincancercellproliferation, migrationanddeath. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Braintumorstemcellsapotentialtargettocombatmalignantgliomas. . . . . . . 26 Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 € Deepbrainstimulationforpsychiatricdisorders–stateoftheart. T. E. SCHLA APFER and B. H. BEWERNICK, Brain Stimulation Group, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy,UniversityHospitalBonn,GermanyandDepartmentsofPsychiatry andMentalHealth,TheJohnsHopkinsUniversity,MD,USA Abstract. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Historyofdeepbrainstimulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 PrinciplesofDBS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 NeurobiologyofdepressionandOCD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Neurobiologyofdepression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 NeurobiologyofOCD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 StudiesofDBSandpsychiatricdisorders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Problemsintargetselection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Targetsindepression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 TargetsinOCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 SafetyandadvantagesofDBS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 EthicalaspectsandstandardsinDBS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Ethicalconsiderations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 ThepathtowardsmandatorystandardsforDBSinpsychiatricdisorders. . . . . . . . 52 Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 ThefutureofDBS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Standards High?owextracranialtointracranialvascularbypassprocedureforgiantan- rysms:indications,surgicaltechnique,complicationsandoutcome. H. C. PATEL and P. J. KIRKPATRICK, Department of Academic Neurosurgery, Addenbrooke’s Hospital,UniversityofCambridge,Cambridge,UK Abstract. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Surgicaltechnique. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Cranialexposure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Cervicalexposure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Saphenousveinexposure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Preauriculartunnel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Contents IX Anastamoses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Distalanastamosis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Externalcarotidanastamosis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Closureandpostoperativecare. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Discussion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Comparisonofoutcomes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Choosingthetypeofgraft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Longtermpatencyofgrafts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Ischaemiccomplications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Anticoagulationrelatedmorbidity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Content Level » Professional/practitioner

Keywords » Chiari type I-malformation - astrocytic glioma - deep brain stimulation - disorders of consciousness - epilepsy surgery - glioma - lateral ventricles - neurosurgery - psychiatric disorders - technical standards

Related subjects » Neurology - Radiology - Surgery

Table of contents 

Advances.- Present and potential future adjuvant issues in high-grade astrocytic glioma treatment.- Deep brain stimulation for psychiatric disorders — state of the art.- Standards.- High flow extracranial to intracranial vascular bypass procedure for giant aneurysms: indications, surgical technique, complications and outcome.- Decompression for Chiari type I-malformation (with or without syringomyelia) by extreme lateral foramen magnum opening and expansile duraplasty with arachnoid preservation: comparison with other technical modalities (Literature review).- Vagal nerve stimulation — a 15-year survey of an established treatment modality in epilepsy surgery.- Surgical anatomy and surgical approaches to the lateral ventricles.

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