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Medicine - Surgery | Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery Vol. 30

Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery Vol. 30

2005, XVI, 289p. 40 illus..

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AsanadditiontotheEuropeanpostgraduatetrainingsystemforyoung neurosurgeons, we began to publish in 1974 this series of Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery which was later sponsored by the EuropeanAssociationofNeurosurgicalSocieties. Thisseries was ?rst discussedin 1972at acombined meeting of the Italian and German Neurosurgical Societies in Taormina, the founding fathersoftheseriesbeingJeanBrihaye,BernardPertuiset,FritzLoewand HugoKrayenbuhl. ThuswereestablishedtheprinciplesofEuropean- operationwhichhavebeenbornfromtheEuropeanspirit,?ourishedin theEuropeanAssociation,andhavebeenassociatedthroughoutwiththis series. ThefactthattheEnglishlanguageisnowtheinternationalmediumfor communicationatEuropeanscienti?cconferencesisagreatassetinterms ofmutualunderstanding. Thereforewehavedecidedtopublishallcont- butionsinEnglish,regardlessofthenativelanguageoftheauthors. All contributions are submitted to the entire editorial board before publicationofanyvolumeforscrutinyandsuggestionsforrevision. Ourseriesisnotintendedtocompetewiththepublicationsoforiginal scienti?cpapersinotherneurosurgicaljournals. Ourintentionis,rather,to present?eldsofneurosurgeryandrelatedareasinwhichimportantrecent advanceshavebeenmade. Thecontributionsarewrittenbyspecialistsin thegiven?eldsandconstitutethe?rstpartofeachvolume. Inthesecondpartofeachvolume,wepublishdetaileddescriptionsof standardoperativeproceduresandindepthreviewsofestablishedkno- edge in all aspects of neurosurgery, furnished by experienced clinicians. This part is intended primarily to assist young neurosurgeons in their postgraduatetraining. However,weareconvincedthatitwillalsobeu- fultoexperienced,fullytrainedneurosurgeons. We hope therefore that surgeons not only in Europe, but also throughouttheworld,willpro?tbythisseriesofAdvancesandTechnical StandardsinNeurosurgery. TheEditors Contents ListofContributors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XV Advances DepolarisationPhenomenainTraumaticandIschaemicBrainInjury. A. J. Strong andR. Dardis,SectionofNeurosurgery,DepartmentofClinicalNeurosciences, King’sCollege,London,UK AbbreviationList. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 History,De?nitionsandIntroduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 CorticalSpreadingDepression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 The‘‘Onset’’PhaseofCSD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 InitiationofCSD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 TheDCPotentialTransient. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 MassNeuronalActivity:Grafstein–1956. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 þ þ Changes in Extracellular Ion Concentrations [K ],[Na ],[Cl ], e e e 2þ [Ca ] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 e ChangesinMembranePotentialandConductanceDuringCSD. . . . . 10 RedistributionofWater:TissueImpedance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 ModeofPropagationofCSD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 PropagationofCSDviaGlialand/orNeuronalGapJunctions. . . . . . . 11 TheRecoveryPhaseofCSD,andtheResponsesofCerebralMeta- lismandBloodFlowtoCSD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 GlucoseUtilisationDuringRecoveryfromCSD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 HaemodynamicResponse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 HistologyoftheCortexFollowingCSD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 MolecularResponsestoCSD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 CSDasanInitiatorofIn?ammation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Pre-Ischaemic Conditioning with CSD as Protection in Experimental Stroke. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 FactorsDeterminingEaseofInductionofCSD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 SpeciesDi¤erencesandCytoarchitecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 DrugsandAnaestheticAgents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 FactorsPrecipitatingMigrainewithAura. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Genotype 18 HaemodynamicandMetabolicConditionsintheCortex. . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 VIII Contents Peri-InfarctDepolarisations(PIDS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Historical. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 DetectionwithElectrodes,andCharacteristicsofPIDsinExperimental inVivoModels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 TheResponseofCBFtoaPeri-InfarctDepolarisation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 DetectionandTrackingofPIDswithImaging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 InitiationofPIDs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 TerminalDepolarisation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Evolution of PID Patterns with Time, Pathogenic Potential, and RecruitmentofPenumbraintoCoreTerritory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 SpeciesVariationsinPIDFrequency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 E¤ectsofDrugsandAnaestheticAgentsonPIDFrequency. . . . . . . . . . . . 25 RelationshipofCorticalGlucoseAvailabilitywithPIDFrequency. . . . . 25 TheMetabolic‘‘Signature’’ofPIDs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 The Role of Depolarisations in Pathophysiology of CNS Disorders in Humans. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Content Level » Professional/practitioner

Keywords » brain injury - consciousness - magnetoencephalography - neurosurgery - prophylactic and antibiotics - skin and bone flaps - spinal endoscopy - technical standards

Related subjects » Neurology - Neuroscience - Radiology - Surgery

Table of contents 

Advances.- Depolarisation Phenomena in Traumatic and Ischaemic Brain Injury.- What is Magnetoencephalography and why it is Relevant to Neurosurgery?.- Basic and Clinical Aspects of Olfaction.- Cranial Venous Outflow Obstruction and Pseudotumor Cerebri Syndrome.- Technical Standards.- Sacral Neuromodulation in Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction.- Prevention and Treatment of Postoperative Pain with Particular Reference to Children.

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