Kuroiwa, T., Baethmann, A., Czernicki, Z., Hoff, J.T., Ito, u., Katayama, Y., Marmarou, A., Mendelow, D., Reulen, H.-J. (Eds.)
2003, XV, 612 p.
Springer eBooks may be purchased by end-customers only and are sold without copy protection (DRM free). Instead, all eBooks include personalized watermarks. This means you can read the Springer eBooks across numerous devices such as Laptops, eReaders, and tablets.
You can pay for Springer eBooks with Visa, Mastercard, American Express or Paypal.
After the purchase you can directly download the eBook file or read it online in our Springer eBook Reader. Furthermore your eBook will be stored in your MySpringer account. So you can always re-download your eBooks.
Brain edema is a simple phenomenon – an abnormal increase of brain tissue volume by the increase of brain tissue water content. However the etiology is not simple and relating to a wide variety of neurological disorders including ischemia, trauma, tumor, hemorrhage and hydrocephalus. It is still a major cause of death in the neurological/neurosurgical ward.
This volume is an up-to-date report on progress in brain edema research, diagnosis and treatment, including papers presented at the 12th International Symposium on Brain Edema and Brain Tissue Injury in 2002. Major topics include molecular biology and blood-brain barrier disorders, ischemic and traumatic brain edema, imaging and diagnosis of brain edema, treatment and radiation effect. Various papers in the rapidly growing fields of neuroimaging and molecular medicine are also included.
General review.- Concept and pathogenesis of “hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy”.- Pathophysiology of traumatic brain edema : current concepts.- Brain edema from intracerebral hemorrhage.- Hydrostatic brain edema: basic mechanisms and clinical aspect.- Non-invasive imaging methods for the characterization of the pathophysiology of brain ischemia.- Cécile & Oskar Vogt: The significance of their contributions in modern neuroscience.- Imaging.- Estimating blood-brain barrier opening in a rat model of hemorrhagic transformation with Patlak plots of Gd-DTPA contrast-enhanced MRI.- Recent development of MR imaging technique for the investigation of brain function.- Energy metabolism and cerebral blood flow during cytotoxic brain edema induced by 6-aminonicotinamide.- PET neuroreceptor imaging as predictor of severe cerebral ischemic insult.- Pet investigation of post-traumatic cerebral blood volume and blood flow.- Quantitative evaluation of cerebral vascular permeability using multi-slice dynamic CT.- Acetazolamide vasoreactivity evaluated by transcranial harmonic perfusion imaging: relationship with transcranial Doppler sonography and dynamic CT.- Functional brain imaging of optical topography.- Experimental global ischemia.- Significant shrinkage of extracellular space during global cerebral ischemia: differences in gray and white matter ischemia.- NTP and PCr responses to hypoxia by hypothermic and normothermic respiring, superfused, neonatal rat cerebrocortical slices: an NMR spectroscopy study at 14.1 Tesla.- Matrix metalloproteinases are not involved in early brain edema formation after cardiac arrest in rats.- Regional N-acetyl-aspartate level and immunohistochemical damage in the hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils.- Extracellular superoxide dismutase following cerebral ischemia in mice.- Peroxynitrite and caspase-3 expression after ischemia/reperfusion in mouse cardiac arrest model.- Expression oftumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) following transient cerebral ischemia.- Evaluation of neuronal cell death after a new global ischemia model in infant mice.- Hippocampal heme oxigenase-1 in a murine cardiac arrest model.- Calcineurin and cyclophilin D are differential targets of neuroprotection by immunosuppressants CsA and FK506 in ischemic brain damage.- FK506 attenuates the post-ischemic perturbation of protein kinases and tyrosine phosphorylation in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 sectors.- Blood-brain barrier dysfunction and amyloid precursor protein accumulation in microvascular compartment following ischemia-reperfusion brain injury with 1-year survival.- Neuroprotective effect from ischemia and direct free radical scavenging activity of Choto-san (kampo medicine).- Experimental focal ischemia.- Temporal profile of experimental ischemic edema after threshold amount of insult to induce infarction-ultrastructure, gravimetry and Evans’ blue extravasation.- Prediction of tissue survival after stroke based on changes in the apparent diffusion of water (cytotoxic edema).- Recovery of apparent diffusion coefficient after embolic stroke does not signify complete salvage of post-ischemic neuronal tissue.- Temporal evolution of apparent diffusion coefficient and T2 value following transient focal cerebral ischemia in gerbils.- Prediction of malignant infarction: perifocal neurochemical monitoring following prolonged MCA occlusion in cats.- A comparison of long-term neurological symptoms after two different focal ischemic models in Mongolian gerbils.- Thrombin exacerbates brain edema in focal cerebral ischemia.- Infiltration of tissue plasminogen activator through cerebral vessels: evaluation using a rat thromboembolic stroke model.- Mice deficient in cytosolic phospholipase A2 are less susceptible to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.- Regional distribution of potassium and phosphorus in ischemic brain tissue of rats with X-ray fluorescence analysis.- Changes of free cholesterol and neutrallipids after transient focal brain ischemia in rats.- Osteopontin infusion into normal adult rat brain fails to increase cell proliferation in dentate gyrus and subventricular zone.- Dissociative increase of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells between young and aged rats after transient cerebral ischemia.- Suppression of oxidative stress after transient focal ischemia in interleukin-1 knock out mice.- Mild hypothermia enhances the neuroprotective effects of a selective thrombin inhibitor following transient focal ischemia in rats.- The neuroprotective effect of a free radical scavenger and mild hypothermia following transient focal ischemia in rats.- Therapeutical efficacy of a novel non-peptide bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist on brain edema formation and ischemic tissue damage in focal cerebral ischemia.- Iodoamphetamine (IMP) uptake in the brain is increased after experimental cerebral venous hypertension in the rat.- Vasogenic edema and VEGF expression in a rat two-vein occlusion model.- Astroglial swelling in the neuronal depolarization ensemble.- An Na+/H+ exchanger inhibitor suppresses cellular swelling and neuronal death induced by glutamate in cultured cortical neurons.- Akt phosphorylation and cell survival after hypoxia-induced cytochrome c release in superfused respiring neonatal rat cerebrocortical slices.- The spinal GDNF level is increased after transient spinal cord ischemia in the rat.- Clinical ischemia.- Identification of malignant brain edema after hemispheric stroke by PET-imaging and microdialysis.- Cerebral blood flow index image as a simple indicator for the fate of acute ischemic lesion.- Transient elevation of serum Bilirubin (a heme oxygenase-1 metabolite) level in hemorrhagic stroke: bilirubin is a marker of oxidant stress.- Relation between brain oxygen metabolism and temperature gradient between brain and bladder.- Experimental trauma.- Neuropeptide release influences brain edema formation after diffuse traumatic brain injury.- Modulation of Aquaporin-4 water transport in a model of TBI.- Correlation of lesion volume and brain swelling from a focal brain trauma.- A role of glial fibrillary acidic protein in hippocampal degenerat ion after cerebral trauma or kainateinduced seizure.- Antioxidant properties of the vasoactive endocann abinoid, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG).- Very early expression of vascular endo thelial growth factor in brain oedema tissue associated with brain contusion.- Changes of perivascular macrophages in the process of brain edema induced by cold injury.- Mitogen-activated protein kinases phosphorylation in posttraumat ic selective vulnerability in rats.- Treatment of cold injury-induced brain edema with a nonspecific matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor MM1270 in rats.- Prions prevent brain damage after experimental brain injury: a preliminary report.- The effect of Cyc1osporin A on brain edema formation following experimental cortic al contusion.- The glutamate AMPA receptor antagonist, YM872, attenuates regional cerebral edema and IgG immunoreactivity following experimental brain injury in rats.- Effects of edara vone on experimental brain injury in view of free radical reaction.- Antioxidant compounds EGB-761 and BN-52021 attenuate brain edema formation and hemeoxygenase expression following hyperthermic brain injury in the rat.- Clinical trauma.- Edema fluid accumulation within necrotic brain tissue as a cause of the mass effect of cerebral contusion in head trauma patients.- Ultra-early study of edema formation in cerebral contusion using diffusion MRI and ADC mapping.- Mixed dishomogeneous hemorrhagic brain contusions. Mapping of cerebral blood flow.- Neuronal damage in pericontusional edema zone.- Characteristics of parietal-parasagittal hemorrhage after mild or moderate traumatic brain injury.- L-8 is a key mediator of neuroinflammation in severe traumatic brain injuries.- The risk factors for the occurrence of acute brain swelling in acute subdural hematoma.- Volume-targeted therapy of increased intracranial pressure.- Induced acute arterial hypertension and regional cerebral flow in intracontusional low density area.- The importance of decompressive craniectomy for the management of severe head injuries.- Importance of hemodynamics management in patients with severe head injury and during hypothermia.- Changes in cerebro vascular response during brain hypothermia after traumatic brain injury.- Spinal cord trauma.- Neurotrophic factors attenuate microvascular permeability disturbances and axonal injury following trauma to the rat spinal cord.- Depletion of endogenous serotonin synthesis with p-CPA attenuates upregulation of constitutive isoform of heme oxygenase-2 expression, edema formation and cell injury following a focal trauma to the rat spinal cord.- High frequency electrical stimulation attenuates progressive necrosis and cavitation following spinal cord injury.- Low molecular weight compounds with affinity to melanocortin receptors exert neuroprotection in spinal cord injury.- Topical application of TNF-? antiserum attenuates spinal cord trauma induced edema formation, microvascular permeability disturbances and cell injury in the rat.- A new antioxidant compound H-290/51 attenuates spinal cord injury induced expression of constitutive and inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase and edema formation in the rat.- Src family kinase inhibition PPl improves motor function by reducing edema after spinal cord contusion in rats.- An L-type calcium channel blocker, nimodipine influences trauma induced spinal cord conduction and axonal injury in the rat.- Multiple hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) expands the therapeutic window in acute spinal cord injury in rats.- Intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage.- The international surgical trial in intracerebral haemorrhage (ISTICH).- Chronological changes of perihematomal edema of human intracerebral hematoma.- Thrombin preconditoning upregulates transferrin and transferrin receptor and reduces brain edema induced by lysed red blood cells.- Effect of hypothermia on brain edema formation following intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.- Effect of delayed argatroban treatment on intracerebral hemorrhage-induced edema in the rat.- Overexpression of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist reduces brain edema induced by intracerebral hemorrhage and thrombin.- The role of haematoma aspiration in the management of patients with thalamic haemorrhage: a pilot study with continuous compliance monitoring.- Acute decrease of cerebrocortical microflow and lack of carbon dioxide reactivity following subarachnoid haemorrhage in the rat.- Heat shock proteins expression in brain stem after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.- Apoptosis, blood-brain barrier, and subarachnoid hemorrhage.- Focal brain edema and natriuretic peptides in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.- Tumor.- Aquaporin 1 and Aquaporin 4 expression in human brain after subarachnoid hemorrhage and in peritumoral tissue.- Aquaporin-1 expression in human glial tumors suggests a potential novel therapeutic target for tumor-associated edema.- A thrombin inhibitor reduces brain edema, glioma mass and neurological deficits in a rat glioma model.- Tissue reconstruction process in the area of peri-tumoural oedema caused by glioblastoma - immunohistochemical and graphical analysis using brain obtained at autopsy.- Radiation necrosis and brain edema association with CyberKnife treatment.- Vacular endothelial growth factor expression in pituitary adenomas.- Hydrocephalus.- Aquaporin-1 delection reduces osmotic water permeability and cerebrospinal fluid production.- Hysteresis of the cerebrospinal pressure-volume curve in hydrocephalus.- Is decreased ventricular volume a correlate of positive clinical outcome following shunt placement in cases of normal pressure hydrocephalus?.- The ICP-dependency of resistance to cerebrospinal fluid outflow: a new mathematical method for CSF-parameter calculation in a model with H-Tx rats.- Metabolic derangements in interstitial brain edema with pre served blood flow: selective vulnerability of the hippocampal CA3 region in rat hydrocephalus.- MRI analysis of hydrocephalus associated with acoustic neurinoma.- Blood brain barrier, miscellaneous.- Non-invasive opening of BBB by focused ultrasound.- Quantitative analysis of hyperosmotic and hypothermic blood-brain barrier opening.- Chronic adrenomedullin treatment improves blood-brain barrier function but has no effects on expression of tight junction proteins.- Blood brain barrier.- Characteristic phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway after kainate-induced seizures in the rat hippocampus.- Highly polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) positive cells are increased and change localization in rat hippocampus by exposure to repeated kindled seizures.- Continuous assessment of cerebral autoregulation : clinical and lab oratory experience.- Spontaneous intracrani al hypotension (SIH): the early appearance of urinary bladder activity in RI cisternography is a pathognomonic sign of SIH?.- Roundtable discussion (Brain Edema 2002).- Hakone best presentation award.- Author Index.- Index of Keywords.