Logo - springer
Slogan - springer

Medicine - Radiology | The Thymus - Diagnostic Imaging, Functions, and Pathologic Anatomy

The Thymus

Diagnostic Imaging, Functions, and Pathologic Anatomy

Walter, Eberhard, Willich, Eberhard, Webb, W. Richard (Eds.)

Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1992, XVI, 224 pp. 190 figs., 26 tabs.

Available Formats:
eBook
Information

Springer eBooks may be purchased by end-customers only and are sold without copy protection (DRM free). Instead, all eBooks include personalized watermarks. This means you can read the Springer eBooks across numerous devices such as Laptops, eReaders, and tablets.

You can pay for Springer eBooks with Visa, Mastercard, American Express or Paypal.

After the purchase you can directly download the eBook file or read it online in our Springer eBook Reader. Furthermore your eBook will be stored in your MySpringer account. So you can always re-download your eBooks.

 
$69.95

(net) price for USA

ISBN 978-3-642-84192-7

digitally watermarked, no DRM

Included Format: PDF

download immediately after purchase


learn more about Springer eBooks

add to marked items

Softcover
Information

Softcover (also known as softback) version.

You can pay for Springer Books with Visa, Mastercard, American Express or Paypal.

Standard shipping is free of charge for individual customers.

 
$99.00

(net) price for USA

ISBN 978-3-642-84194-1

free shipping for individuals worldwide

usually dispatched within 3 to 5 business days


add to marked items

Until the middle of the present century, the morphology and function of the thymus were primarily of interest to those working in the fields of pathologic anatomy, endo­ crinology, and pediatrics. However, during recent decades careful and refined histo­ logic studies of the organ have expanded our knowledge. It now seems certain that the thymus plays a central role in the immune system, and some of the substances pro­ duced by this organ are considered together under the collective term of "thymic hor­ mones". In clinical medicine (in particular endocrinology and pediatrics, as well as surgery and radiologic oncology), the startling advances that have taken place in radiologic diagnostics with the advent of new imaging procedures such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have provided fresh impetus in the search for effec­ tive treatments for hyperplasia, tumors, and tumor-like changes of the thymus. Normal variants of the thymus, which lies concealed within the anterior superior mediastinum, have been recorded, and pathologic changes such as primary or secondary tumors can now be analyzed and correctly diagnosed.

Content Level » Research

Keywords » Pathologische Anatomie - Pädiatrische Radiologie - Strahlendiagnostik - Thymus - Thymuserkrankung

Related subjects » Oncology & Hematology - Radiology

Table of contents 

1 Introduction — Historical Background.- 2 Anatomy and Embryology of the Thymus.- 2.1 Embryology.- 2.2 Normal Anatomy.- 2.3 Involution.- References.- 3 Immunologic Function of the Thymus.- 3.1 Historical Overview.- 3.2 T Cell Molecules in Antigen Recognition.- 3.2.1 Accessory Molecules.- 3.3 Ontogeny of T Cells.- 3.3.1 Thymocyte Precursors.- 3.3.2 TCR Rearrangements.- 3.3.3 Maturation into Functional T Cells.- 3.3.4 Factors Governing T Cell Development Within the Thymus.- 3.4 Cellular Selection in the Thymus.- 3.5 Clinical Aspects.- 3.6 Summary.- References.- 4 Imaging Procedures for Visualization of the Thymus.- 4.1 Plain Film Diagnostics E.Walter and E.Willich.- 4.1.1 Chest Radiography in Two Planes.- 4.1.2 Fluoroscopy.- 4.2 Conventional Tomography.- 4.3 Ultrasonography.- 4.4 Computed Tomography.- 4.5 Magnetic Resonance Imaging W.R.Webb and G.deGeer.- 4.5.1 Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging.- 4.5.2 Image Production.- 4.5.3 Normal Appearances.- 4.5.4 Image Contrast and Interpretation.- 4.5.5 MRI Diagnosis of Mediastinal Masses.- 4.5.6 Image Acquisition and ECG Gating.- 4.5.7 Characterization of Mediastinal Masses.- 4.6 Nuclear Medicine E.Walter and E.Willich.- 4.6.1 67 Gallium Citrate.- 4.6.2 75 Selenium Methionine.- 4.6.3 99m Technetium Pertechnetate.- 4.7 Esophagography.- 4.8 Angiography.- 4.8.1 Arteriography.- 4.8.2 Angiocardiography.- 4.8.3 Phlebography and Superior Venacavography.- 4.9 Obsolete Methods.- 4.9.1 Kymography.- 4.9.2 Pneumomediastinography.- 4.10 Supplementary Procedures (Mediastinography, Bronchoscopy, Bronchography) E.Willich.- References.- 5 Diagnostic Imaging of the Normal Thymus.- 5.1 Conventional Diagnostics in Children E.Willich and E.Walter.- 5.1.1 Newborns and Infants.- 5.1.2 Preschool Age to Adolescence.- 5.1.3 Adults.- 5.2 Ultrasonography.- 5.2.1 Children.- 5.2.2 Adults.- 5.3 Computed Tomography E.Walter.- 5.4 Magnetic Resonance Imaging W.R.Webb and G.deGeer.- 5.4.1 Children.- 5.4.2 Adults.- 5.5 Invasive Procedures (Pneumomediastinography, Arteriography, Phlebography) E.Walter.- 5.6 Measurement of the Size of the Thymus E.Willich.- 5.6.1 Radiographic Method.- 5.6.2 Computed Tomography.- 5.6.3 Magnetic Resonance Imaging W.R.Webb and G.deGeer.- References.- 6 Acute and Stress-Induced Involution of the Thymus.- 6.1 Acute Endogenous Involution of the Thymus.- 6.2 Exogenous Involution of the Thymus: the Steroid Test.- 6.3 Transplacental Influence of Steroids on the Premature Infant’s Thymus.- References.- 7 Developmental Abnormalities of the Thymus.- 7.1 Aplasia, Hypoplasia, and Dysplasia E.Willich and E.Walter.- 7.2 Dystopia.- 7.2.1 Cervical and Superior Mediastinum.- 7.2.2 Middle Mediastinum.- 7.2.3 Posterior Mediastinum.- 7.2.4 Miscellaneous.- References.- 7.3 Persistent Thymus E.Willich.- 7.3.1 Introduction.- 7.3.2 Pathophysiologic Causes.- 7.3.3 Clinical Features.- 7.3.4 Imaging Methods.- 7.3.5 Differential Diagnosis.- References.- 7.4 Hyperplasia.- 7.4.1 Introduction.- 7.4.2 Pathologic Features W.J.Hofmann and H.F. Otto.- 7.4.2.1 True Thymic Hyperplasia.- 7.4.2.2 Thymic Hyperplasia with Massive Enlargement of the Gland.- 7.4.2.3 Thymic Rebound in Childhood and Adolescence.- 7.4.2.4 True Thymic Hyperplasia in Association with Other Diseases.- 7.4.2.5 Lymphofollicular Hyperplasia of the Thymus.- 7.4.3 Clinical Features E.Willich.- 7.4.3.1 Asymptomatic Thymic Hyperplasia.- 7.4.3.2 Symptomatic Thymic Hyperplasia.- 7.4.4 Associated Diseases.- 7.4.5 Imaging Procedures and Findings.- 7.4.6 Regenerative Hyperplasia (Regrowth, Rebound Phenomenon).- 7.4.7 Differential Diagnosis.- 7.4.8 Therapy.- 7.4.9 Follow-up.- References.- 8 Tumors of the Thymus.- 8.1 Introduction E.Walter.- 8.2 Epithelial Tumors of the Thymus.- 8.2.1 Pathologic Features W.J.Hofmann and H.F. Otto.- 8.2.1.1 Macroscopic Appearance.- 8.2.1.2 Histologic Appearance.- 8.2.1.3 Classification.- 8.2.1.4 Immunohistology.- 8.2.1.5 Clinicopathologic Correlations.- References.- 8.2.2 Encapsulated and Invasive Thymomas E.Walter.- 8.2.2.1 Occurrence and Clinical Symptoms.- 8.2.2.2 Association of Thymoma with Other Syndromes and Diseases.- 8.2.2.3 Diagnosis with Imaging Procedures.- 8.2.2.4 Differential Diagnosis.- 8.2.2.5 Relative Value of the Imaging Procedures.- 8.2.2.6 Therapy and Prognosis.- References.- 8.2.3 Carcinoma of the Thymus.- 8.2.3.1 Occurrence and Clinical Symptoms.- 8.2.3.2 Diagnosis with Imaging Procedures.- 8.2.3.3 Differential Diagnosis.- 8.2.3.4 Relative Value of the Imaging Procedures.- 8.2.3.5 Therapy and Prognosis.- References.- 8.3 Carcinoid Tumors of the Thymus.- 8.3.1 Pathologic Features W.J.Hofmann and H.F. Otto.- 8.3.2 Occurrence and Clinical Symptoms E.Walter.- 8.3.2.1 Occurrence.- 8.3.2.2 Clinical Symptoms.- 8.3.3 Diagnosis with Imaging Procedures.- 8.3.4 Differential Diagnosis.- 8.3.5 Relative Value of the Imaging Procedures.- 8.3.6 Therapy and Prognosis.- References.- 8.4 Thymic Involvement in Malignant Lymphomas and Leukemia E.Willich and E.Walter.- 8.4.1 Pathologic Features W. J. Hofmann and H. F. Otto.- 8.4.2 Hodgkin’s Disease E.Willich and E.Walter.- 8.4.2.1 Occurrence.- 8.4.2.2 Clinical Symptoms.- 8.4.2.3 Diagnosis with Imaging Procedures.- 8.4.2.4 Hodgkin’s Disease of the Thymus Before and After Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy E.Walter and E.Willich.- 8.4.3 Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.- 8.4.4 Leukemia.- 8.4.5 Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma and Leukemia with Thymic Involvement, During and After Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy.- 8.4.6 Differential Diagnosis E.Walter.- 8.4.7 Relative Value of the Imaging Procedures.- References.- 8.5 Mesenchymal Tumors (Thymolipoma) E.Walter.- 8.5.1 Pathologic Features W. J. Hofmann and H. F. Otto.- 8.5.2 Occurrence and Clinical Symptoms E.Walter.- 8.5.2.1 Occurrence.- 8.5.2.2 Clinical Symptoms.- 8.5.3 Diagnosis with Imaging Procedures.- 8.5.4 Differential Diagnosis.- 8.5.5 Relative Value of Imaging Procedures.- 8.5.6 Therapy and Prognosis.- References.- 8.6 Germ Cell Tumors and Teratomas E.Walter.- 8.6.1 Pathologic Anatomy W.J.Hofmann and H.F. Otto.- 8.6.2 Seminoma E.Walter.- 8.6.2.1 Occurrence and Clinical Symptoms.- 8.6.2.2 Diagnosis with Imaging Procedures.- 8.6.2.3 Differential Diagnosis and Relative Value of the Imaging Procedures.- 8.6.2.4 Therapy and Prognosis.- 8.6.3 Nonseminomatous, Pure or Mixed Germ Cell Tumors.- 8.6.3.1 Occurrence and Clinical Symptoms.- 8.6.3.2 Diagnosis with Imaging Procedures.- 8.6.3.3 Differential Diagnosis and Relative Value of the Imaging Procedures.- 8.6.3.4 Therapy and Prognosis.- References.- 8.7 Rare Tumors of the Thymus.- 8.7.1 Hemangioma of the Thymus.- 8.7.2 Choristoma of the Thymus.- References.- 8.8 Metastases to the Thymus.- Reference.- 9 Tumor-like (Nonneoplastic) Conditions of the Thymus and/or Mediastinum.- 9.1 Thymogenic Cysts.- 9.1.1 Pathologic Anatomy W.J.Hofmann and H.F. Otto.- 9.1.2 Occurrence and Clinical Symptoms E.Walter and E. Willich.- 9.1.3 Diagnosis with Imaging Procedures.- 9.1.4 Differential Diagnosis.- 9.1.5 Relative Value of the Imaging Procedures.- 9.1.6 Therapy and Prognosis.- 9.2 Hydatidosis of the Thymus.- 9.3 Tuberculoma of the Thymus.- 9.4 Histiocytosis X of the Thymus.- References.- 10 Trauma and Hemorrhage of the Thymus.- 10.1 Trauma.- 10.2 Hemorrhage.- References.- 11 Thymus and Myasthenia Gravis.- 11.1 Definition of Myasthenia Gravis H.Wlethölter.- 11.2 Clinical Manifestation.- 11.2.1 Symptoms and Signs.- 11.2.2 Classification.- 11.2.3 Clinical Examination.- 11.2.4 Prognosis.- 11.3 Associated Thymic Changes.- 11.3.1 Association of Thymic Changes with Other Diseases.- 11.4 Pathogenesis.- 11.5 Autoimmune Origin.- 11.6 Diagnosis.- 11.6.1 Radiological Diagnosis E.Willich and E.Walter.- 11.7 Treatment H.Wlethölter.- References.

Popular Content within this publication 

 

Articles

Read this Book on Springerlink

Services for this book

New Book Alert

Get alerted on new Springer publications in the subject area of Imaging / Radiology.