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Medicine - Radiology | Bone Densitometry for Technologists

Bone Densitometry for Technologists

Bonnick, Sydney Lou, Lewis, Lori Ann

2002, XVIII, 323 p.

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With the rapid proliferation of highly sensitive bone densitometry devices since 1995, the level of skill required to operate them and interpret their results has risen sharply and now often exceeds the formal training of many operators. In Bone Densitometry for Technologists, leading densitometry experts Sydney Lou Bonnick, MD, FACP, and Lori Ann Lewis, MRT, CDT, set out to correct this deficiency by reviewing in simple language the essentials of densitometry and its day-to-day practice. Written specifically for radiologic technologists, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and dedicated densitometry technologists, this book provides all of the practical knowledge needed to expertly operate any of today's sophisticated densitometry machines. Topics range from technical descriptions of all FDA-approved densitometry devices to a clinical review of osteoporosis, and include comprehensive tutorials on computer basics, anatomy for densitometrists, the art of interpreting test results, and performing successful precision studies-all crafted to meet the daily needs of the practicing densitometrist. Additional chapters complete the technologist's skill-set with discussions of mechanical maintenance, radiation safety, and the terminology and conventions used in the profession.
Comprehensive, informative, and highly practical, Bone Densitometry for Technologists emphasizes the role of densitometry and technologists in the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis. It provides a sound basis for a complete understanding of the often esoteric technical manuals supplied by manufacturers, and goes far beyond that understanding to permit expert operation of any approved densitometry device.

Content Level » Professional/practitioner

Keywords » X-ray - anatomy - bone - computed tomography - computed tomography (CT) - computer - fracture - magnetic resonance imaging - magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - osteoarthritis - osteoporosis - radiation - surgery - tomography - ultrasound

Related subjects » Radiology

Table of contents 

Chapter 1. An Introduction to Conventions in Densitometry Densitometry as a Quantitative Measurement Technique Accuracy and Precision The Skeleton in Densitometry Weight Bearing or Non-Weight Bearing Sites Axial or Appendicular Sites Central or Peripheral Sites Cortical or Trabecular Sites What Do the Machines Actually Measure? The Densitometry Printout The Percentage Comparisons The Standard Score Comparisons The Age-Regression Graph The Standardized BMD The NHANES III Database for the Proximal Femur References Chapter 2. Densitometry Techniques Plain Radiography in the Assessment of Bone Density Qualitative Morphometry Qualitative Spinal Morphometry The Singh Index Quantitative Morphometric Techniques Calcar Femorale Thickness Radiogrammetry The Radiologic Osteoporosis Score Radiographic Photodensitometry Radiographic Absorptiometry Photon Absorptiometry Techniques Single Photon Absorptiometry Dual Photon Absorptiometry Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Peripheral DXA Single-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Quantitative Computed Tomography Peripheral QCT Quantitative Ultrasound Bone Densitometry References Chapter 3. Skeletal Anatomy in Densitometry The Spine in Densitometry Vertebral Anatomy Artifacts in PA or AP Spine Densitometry Vertebral Fractures Effects of Osteophytes on BMD Effects of Aortic Calcification on BMD Effects of Facet Sclerosis on BMD Other Causes of Artifacts in PA and AP Lumbar Spine Studies The Spine in the Lateral Projection The Proximal Femur in Densitometry Proximal Femur Anatomy Effects of Rotation on BMD in the Proximal Femur Effects of Leg Dominance on BMD in the Proximal Femur Effects of Scoliosis, Osteoarthritis, Osteophytes, Surgery, and Fracture on BMD in the Proximal Femur The Forearm in Densitometry Nomenclature Effects of Arm Dominance on Forearm BMD Effects of Artifacts on BMD in the Forearm The Metacarpals, Phalanges, and Calcaneus References Chapter 4. Densitometry Devices Approved by the Food and Drug Administration Computer-Enhanced Radiogrammetry Computer-Enhanced Radiographic Absorptiometry Central X-ray Densitometers Peripheral X-ray Densitometers Ultrasound Bone Densitometers Chapter 5. Computer Basics Types of Computers Desktops, Towers, Minitowers, and Laptops PCs and Macs Major Components of a Computer System Important Components Inside the Computer Housing Motherboard, Random Access Memory, and Slots The CPU The Hard Drive Internal Disk Drives Input Devices The Keyboard The Mouse The Trackball Output Devices Monitors Printers Computer Ports Keyboard and Mouse Ports Parallel Ports Serial Ports Universal Serial Bus Ports Power, Monitor, Modem, and Network Ports Types of Storage Media Magnetic Media Tape Media Optical Media Protecting the Data Computer Maintenance Chapter 6. Precision in Bone Densitometry Performing a Precision Study Short-Term Precision Studies Long-Term Precision Studies Determination of Least Significant Change When Should a Measurement Be Repeated in Clinical Practice? Which Skeletal Site Should Be Used to Monitor Changes in Bone Density? Is the Measured Change the Actual Change in BMD? Case Study in Precision Importance of Precision References Chapter 7. Radiation Safety in X-Ray Densitometry Basics of Radiation Quantities of Radiation The Curie The Roentgen The Rad The Rem The Effective Dose Equivalent Harmful Effects of Ionizing Radiation Acute Lethal Radiation Syndromes

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