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Medicine - Orthopedics | ACL Injuries in the Female Athlete - Causes, Impacts, and Conditioning Programs

ACL Injuries in the Female Athlete

Causes, Impacts, and Conditioning Programs

Noyes, Frank R., Barber-Westin, Sue (Eds.)

2012, XIV, 534 p. 245 illus., 225 illus. in color. With DVD.

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  • Provides step-by-step details of training programs of proven value in reducing the rate of noncontact ACL injuries in female athletes 
  • Describes the risk factors for ACL injuries in female athletes using data from hypothesis-driven investigations 
  • Summarizes hundreds of published studies, providing a clear understanding of the short- and long-term impacts of ACL injuries

Nearly a million anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur each year worldwide. Such injuries can cause long-term problems in the knee joint, including in particular the early onset of osteoarthritis. It has been evident for some time that a tremendous gender disparity exists in noncontact ACL injuries in sports, and this aspect has been the subject of intensive research.


This textbook, focusing on female athletes, reviews and discusses:


  • The short- and long-term impacts of ACL injuries
  • Risk factors and possible causes of the higher injury risk in females
  • Neuromuscular training programs and their effectiveness in reducing noncontact ACL injury rates in females
  • Sports-specific programs for a range of sports with proven improvements in athletic performance
  • Rehabilitation programs after ACL reconstruction that reduce the risk of a future injury
  • Worldwide implementation of neuromuscular retraining


The book will be of value to orthopedic surgeons, physical therapists, athletic trainers, sports medicine primary care physicians, and strength and conditioning specialists.

Content Level » Professional/practitioner

Keywords » ACL - Female athlete - Injury prevention - Neuromuscular retraining - Osteoarthritis

Related subjects » Medicine - Orthopedics - Public Health

Table of contents 

Introduction: The ACL: Anatomy, Biomechanics, Mechanisms of Injury, and the Gender Disparity. The Impact of ACL Injuries: Short- and Long-Term Effects on the Knee Joint: Consequences of Complete ACL Ruptures.- ACL Reconstruction: Chondroprotective Effects, Risks of Reinjury. Proposed Risk Factors of Noncontact ACL Injuries: Role of Shoe-Surface Interaction and Noncontact ACL Injuries.- Neuromuscular Differences Between Men and Women.- Gender Differences in Muscular Protection of the Knee.- Effects of Alterations in Gait Mechanics on the Development of Osteoarthritis in the ACL-Deficient Knee.- Analysis of Male and Female Athletes’ Muscle Activation Patterns During Running, Cutting, and Jumping.- Proximal Risk Factors for ACL Injury: Role of Core Stability.- Proximal Risk Factors for ACL Injury: Role of the Hip.- Gender Differences in Core Strength and Lower Extremity Function During the Single-leg Squat Test.- Gender Effect of Fatigue on Lower Extremity Kinematics and Kinetics During Athletic Tasks.- Testing for Neuromuscular Problems and Athletic Performance. ACL Injury Prevention Programs: Sportsmetrics ACL Intervention Training Program: Components, Results.- Sports-Specific Programs for Soccer, Basketball, Volleyball, Tennis.- ACL Injury Prevention in Soccer: The Santa Monica Experience.- ACL Injury Prevention Warm-up Programs.- Effect of Intervention Programs on Reducing the Incidence of ACL Injuries, Improving Neuromuscular Deficiencies, and Enhancing Athletic Performance. Reducing the Risk of Reinjury After ACL Reconstruction: Rehabilitation After ACL Reconstruction.- Restoration of Proprioception and Neuromuscular Control Following ACL Injury and Surgery. Future Directions : Promotion of ACL Intervention Training Worldwide.- What We Know and Goals for Future Research.

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