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Medicine | Annals of Behavioral Medicine - incl. option to publish open access

Annals of Behavioral Medicine

Annals of Behavioral Medicine

Editor-in-Chief: Kevin Masters

ISSN: 0883-6612 (print version)
ISSN: 1532-4796 (electronic version)

Journal no. 12160

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Instructions for Authors

Annals of Behavioral Medicine

Editorial Office  

All correspondence, including questions about submission, should be directed to the Editor-in-Chief, Kevin Masters, at kevin.masters@ucdenver.edu.

Types of Submissions Considered 

Regular Articles
The majority of journal pages are devoted to the publication of original empirical articles, such as reports of randomized controlled trials, observational studies, or other basic and clinical investigations. Quantitative or descriptive and integrative literature reviews will also be considered. Manuscripts should clearly state an objective or hypothesis, the research methods (including statistical methods), the essential features of any interventions, the outcome measures, and the results of the investigation. The results should be discussed in the context of other published literature.
Brief Report
Annals of Behavioral Medicine accepts brief reports of soundly designed research studies of specialized interest that can be effectively communicated in less space than standard-length articles. An author who submits a Brief Report must agree not to submit the full report to another journal. Brief Report submissions should not exceed a total of 15 double-spaced pages typed in 12-point font with 1-inch margins (including title page, abstract, references, tables, and figures).
Letters to the Editor
Annals of Behavioral Medicine may occasionally publish Letters to the Editor that offer opinion or interpretation of articles previously published in the journal. Letters should be limited to 500 words or less and should not have more than seven references. Tables and figures should be used only if absolutely necessary. It is customary for letters to be sent to the author(s) of the original work and the authors’ response may be published as a companion to the Letter to the Editor.

Author Guidelines  

Conditions for authorship credit include: substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; drafting and/or critically revising the article for important intellectual content; and final approval of the version to be published. All persons designated as authors should meet all three criteria, and all those who qualify should be listed. All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an acknowledgments section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help or writing assistance, or a department chair who provided only general support. Because readers may infer their endorsement of the data and conclusions, these persons must give written permission to be acknowledged.
Use of copyrighted material
Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Manuscripts are sent out for review on the condition that any unpublished data cited within are properly credited and the appropriate permission has been sought. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Declaration of original work approved by all authors
Submission of a manuscript implies that: the work described has not been published before; it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; and its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if applicable, as well as by the responsible authorities - tacitly or explicitly - at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.
Declaration of overlapping reports
In the submission letter, the author must make a complete statement to the editor about any previous reporting of the data (e.g., conference presentations or posting of results in registries) or any related publications or papers submitted for publication that arise from the same data set or study. Any potential redundancies must be referred to and referenced in the submitted manuscript. Copies of such material must be provided upon request.
Registration of Clinical Trials
As a condition of consideration for publication, clinical trials must be registered in a public registry (e.g., www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the trial registration number must be reported in the Methods section of the manuscript as well as at the end of the abstract, e.g., (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT#). Clinical trials are defined as studies that prospectively assign participants to either intervention or control conditions to study the cause-and-effect relationship between an intervention(s) and a health or behavioral health related outcome. This policy requires the registration of trial methodology but does not require registration of trial results. Although the journal does not advocate a particular registry, the registry must be accessible to the public at no charge, open to all prospective registrants, managed by a not-for-profit organization, and electronically searchable.

Manuscript Style Guide 

With the exception of referencing, Annals of Behavioral Medicine follows the style guidelines of the American Psychological Association and it is suggested that contributors refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for specific information. The reference list and citations within the text should conform to AMA style.
• Typically, manuscripts will not exceed 30 double-spaced pages (including captions, tables, and references).
• All pages should be numbered (including pages containing the title, author name and affiliation footnotes, abstract, acknowledgments, references, tables, and figure caption list), with a minimum one-inch margin on all sides.
• Footnotes should be avoided.
• A structured abstract of no longer than 250 words is required, and should be divided into the following sections: Background, Purpose, Methods, Results, Conclusions. A list of 4-6 key words should be provided directly below the abstract for indexing purposes.
• Figures and illustrations are to be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals and referred to by number in the text. Figure captions are to be typed on a separate sheet of paper and must identify all elements found in the figure. Any previously published material should be identified by giving the original source at the end of the caption.
• Tables are to be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals and referred to by number in the text. Each table should be typed on a separate page. Each table must include a heading that clearly and concisely explains the components of the table. Any previously published material should be identified by giving the original source at the end of the table heading. Table notes should be indicated by superscript lowercase letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included beneath the table body.
• Cite references in text using numbers in parentheses (e.g., “Behavioral Medicine spans many disciplines (1,2)….”). Examples of AMA style for the reference list are provided below, although authors are encouraged to consult a recent issue of Annals of Behavioral Medicine or the AMA style manual for further information. The reference list should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list.
• Whenever possible, statistical tests should include a reporting of effects sizes. Authors are encouraged to report the relevant statistical information for both significant and non-significant effects, and to follow the statistical reporting recommendations presented in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
• To enhance readability for a wide audience, the use of abbreviations and acronyms should be avoided throughout the manuscript. Exceptions include common statistical terminology (e.g., ANOVA) and other widely recognized acronyms.
• Generic names of drugs are preferred; if trade names are used, the generic name should be given at first mention.
• Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.

Examples of AMA Reference Style 

Book with one to six authors:
• Lugalla JB. Poverty, AIDS, and Street Children in East Africa. Lewiston, NY: Mellen Press; 2003.
Book with seven or more authors:
• Greg AM, Marshall KC, Peters NH, et al. Raising Large Families. San Francisco, CA: Brady Limited; 2006.
Edited book with one to six editors:
• Brunton LB, Lazo JS, Parker KL, eds. Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 11th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2005.
Edited book with seven or more editors:
• Brunton LB, Lazo JS, Parker KL, et al. eds. Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 11th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2005.
Chapter in edited book:
• O’Brien C. Drug addiction and drug abuse. In: Brunton LB, Lazo JS, Parker KL, eds. Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 11th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2005: 607-629.
Journal article with one to six authors:
• Salwachter AR, Freischlag JA, Sawyer RG, Sanfey HA. The training needs and priorities of male and female surgeons and their trainees. J Am Coll Surg. 2005; 201: 199-205.
Journal article with seven or more authors:
• Fukushima H, Cureoglu S, Schachern PO, et al. Cochlear changes in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Otolaryngology. 2005; 133: 100-106.
• National Cancer Institute. Underlying mortality data provided by national Center for Health Statistics. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/. Accessibility verified September 20, 2005.

Consensus Guidelines for Reporting 

Where appropriate, authors are requested to follow reporting standards that apply to their particular study design to ensure that important information about the conduct of the study is available to reviewers and future readers. The following list describes the reporting standards that are expected to be followed for all relevant submissions.
CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials; www.consort-statement.org) – Authors of randomized trials are requested to follow CONSORT guidelines in reporting their manuscript and to include a CONSORT checklist as an appendix to their submission.
TREND (Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Non-randomized Designs; www.cdc.gov/trendstatement) - Authors of non-randomized trials are requested to follow TREND guidelines in reporting their manuscript and to include a TREND checklist as an appendix to their submission.
STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology; www.strobe-statement.org) – Authors of manuscripts that report on observational studies (including cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies) are expected to follow STROBE guidelines and to include a STROBE checklist as an appendix to their submission.
PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses; www.prisma-statement.org) – Authors of systematic reviews and meta-analyses are requested to follow PRISMA reporting guidelines and to include a PRISMA checklist as an appendix to their submission.

Manuscript Submission Instructions 

All manuscripts must be submitted via Editorial Manager (https://www.editorialmanager.com/anbm/default.aspx) an online submission and review system used to track manuscript progress from initial submission through the final publication decision. Authors will enter pertinent information into the system and submit the following files:
(a) Cover letter file, containing any comments to the editor as well as a statement indicating (i) that the findings reported have not been previously published and that the manuscript is not being simultaneously submitted elsewhere; (ii) any previous reporting of data; (iii) that the authors have full control of all primary data and that they agree to allow the journal to review their data if requested; and (iv) any actual or potential conflicts of interest with the organization that sponsored the research.
(b) Manuscript file, containing the entire text of the article, including abstract, all text, references, footnotes, and appendices, figures, and tables. In an effort to promote a masked review process, where authors and reviewers are anonymous to each other, this file should not include author information such as names, affiliations, or contact information.
(c) Cover page file, containing a manuscript cover page that provides title, all author names, degrees, an affiliations, and the contact information for the corresponding author.
(d) COI and Ethical Adherence file, containing the required Author(s) Statement of Conflict of Interest and Adherence to Ethical Standards.
(e) Electronic Supplementary Material file(s). If electronic supplementary material (ESM) is submitted, it will be published as received from the author in the online version only. ESM may consist of information that cannot be included in the printed version of the manuscript, e.g., animations, video clips, sound recordings, information that is more convenient in electronic form, sequences, spectral data, or additional tables or illustrations. If supplying any ESM, the text must make specific mention of the material as a citation, similar to that of figures and tables (e.g., “ . . . as shown in Electronic Supplementary Material 1.”).

Instructions for Manuscripts Accepted for Publication 

The purpose of the proof is to check for typesetting errors and the completeness and accuracy of the text, tables, and figures. Substantial changes in content (e.g., new results, corrected values, title or authorship modifications) are not allowed without the approval of the Editor. After online publication, critical changes can only be made in the form of an Erratum, which will be hyperlinked to the article.
Authors will receive an electronic notification to transfer copyright of the article to the Society of Behavioral Medicine. This will ensure the widest possible protection and dissemination of information under copyright laws. Open Choice articles do not require transfer of copyright as the copyright remains with the author. In opting for open access, authors agree to the Springer Open Choice License.
Online First
The article will be published online after receipt of the corrected proofs. This is the official first publication citable with the DOI. After release of the printed version, the paper can also be cited by issue and page numbers.

English Language Editing 

For editors and reviewers to accurately assess the work presented in your manuscript you need to ensure the English language is of sufficient quality to be understood. If you need help with writing in English you should consider:
  • Asking a colleague who is a native English speaker to review your manuscript for clarity.
  • Visiting the English language tutorial which covers the common mistakes when writing in English.
  • Using a professional language editing service where editors will improve the English to ensure that your meaning is clear and identify problems that require your review. Two such services are provided by our affiliates Nature Research Editing Service and American Journal Experts. Springer authors are entitled to a 10% discount on their first submission to either of these services, simply follow the links below.
Please note that the use of a language editing service is not a requirement for publication in this journal and does not imply or guarantee that the article will be selected for peer review or accepted.
If your manuscript is accepted it will be checked by our copyeditors for spelling and formal style before publication.


● 请一位以英语为母语的同事审核您的稿件是否表意清晰。
● 查看一些有关英语写作中常见语言错误的教程。
● 使用专业语言编辑服务,编辑人员会对英语进行润色,以确保您的意思表达清晰,并识别需要您复核的问题。我们的附属机构 Nature Research Editing Service 和合作伙伴 American Journal Experts 即可提供此类服务。


・プロの英文校正サービスを利用する。校正者が原稿の意味を明確にしたり、問題点を指摘し、英語の質を向上させます。Nature Research Editing Service とAmerican Journal Experts の2つは弊社と提携しているサービスです。Springer の著者は、いずれのサービスも初めて利用する際には10%の割引を受けることができます。以下のリンクを参照ください。


영어 원고의 경우, 에디터 및 리뷰어들이 귀하의 원고에 실린 결과물을 정확하게 평가할 수 있도록, 그들이 충분히 이해할 수 있을 만한 수준으로 작성되어야 합니다. 만약 영작문과 관련하여 도움을 받기를 원하신다면 다음의 사항들을 고려하여 주십시오:
• 귀하의 원고의 표현을 명확히 해줄 영어 원어민 동료를 찾아서 리뷰를 의뢰합니다.
• 영어 튜토리얼 페이지에 방문하여 영어로 글을 쓸 때 자주하는 실수들을 확인합니다.
• 리뷰에 대비하여, 원고의 의미를 명확하게 해주고 리뷰에서 요구하는 문제점들을 식별해서 영문 수준을 향상시켜주는 전문 영문 교정 서비스를 이용합니다. Nature Research Editing Service와 American Journal Experts에서 저희와 협약을 통해 서비스를 제공하고 있습니다. Springer 저자들이 본 교정 서비스를 첫 논문 투고를 위해 사용하시는 경우 10%의 할인이 적용되며, 아래의 링크를 통하여 확인이 가능합니다.
영문 교정 서비스는 게재를 위한 요구사항은 아니며, 해당 서비스의 이용이 피어 리뷰에 논문이 선택되거나 게재가 수락되는 것을 의미하거나 보장하지 않습니다.
원고가 수락될 경우, 출판 전 저희측 편집자에 의해 원고의 철자 및 문체를 검수하는 과정을 거치게 됩니다.

Appeals Process for Manuscript Submissions 

If a manuscript is rejected and the author(s) believe that a pertinent point was overlooked or misunderstood by the reviewers, it is possible to appeal the editorial decision by contacting the Associate Editor or Editor in charge of the submission. If an appeal to the Associate Editor does not bring about a satisfactory resolution, further appeal can be directed to the Editor-in-Chief. If an appeal to the Editor-in-Chief does not result in a satisfactory resolution, then a final appeal can be addressed to the Chair of the Publications and Communications Council of the Society of Behavioral Medicine (http://www.sbm.org/committees/).

Ethical Responsibilities of Authors 

This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation can be achieved by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include:
  • The manuscript has not been submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
  • The manuscript has not been published previously (partly or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work (please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the hint of text-recycling (“self-plagiarism”)).
  • A single study is not split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (e.g. “salami-publishing”).
  • No data have been fabricated or manipulated (including images) to support your conclusions
  • No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (“plagiarism”). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions are secured for material that is copyrighted.
    Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
  • Consent to submit has been received explicitly from all co-authors, as well as from the responsible authorities - tacitly or explicitly - at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.
  • Authors whose names appear on the submission have contributed sufficiently to the scientific work and therefore share collective responsibility and accountability for the results.
  • Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, corresponding author, and order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship or in the order of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
  • Adding and/or deleting authors at revision stage may be justifiably warranted. A letter must accompany the revised manuscript to explain the role of the added and/or deleted author(s). Further documentation may be required to support your request.
  • Requests for addition or removal of authors as a result of authorship disputes after acceptance are honored after formal notification by the institute or independent body and/or when there is agreement between all authors.
  • Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential proprietary data is excluded.
If there is a suspicion of misconduct, the journal will carry out an investigation following the COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, the allegation seems to raise valid concerns, the accused author will be contacted and given an opportunity to address the issue. If misconduct has been established beyond reasonable doubt, this may result in the Editor-in-Chief’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
  • If the article is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
  • If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction, either an erratum will be placed with the article or in severe cases complete retraction of the article will occur. The reason must be given in the published erratum or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the paper is maintained on the platform, watermarked "retracted" and explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.
  • The author’s institution may be informed.

Compliance with Ethical Standards 

To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.
Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” when submitting a paper:
  • Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
  • Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
  • Informed consent
Please note that standards could vary slightly per journal dependent on their peer review policies (i.e. single or double blind peer review) as well as per journal subject discipline. Before submitting your article check the instructions following this section carefully.
The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.
The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.

Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest 

Authors must disclose all relationships or interests that could influence or bias the work. Although an author may not feel there are conflicts, disclosure of relationships and interests affords a more transparent process, leading to an accurate and objective assessment of the work. Awareness of real or perceived conflicts of interests is a perspective to which the readers are entitled and is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation for consultancy work is inappropriate. Examples of potential conflicts of interests that are directly or indirectly related to the research may include but are not limited to the following:
  • Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number)
  • Honoraria for speaking at symposia
  • Financial support for attending symposia
  • Financial support for educational programs
  • Employment or consultation
  • Support from a project sponsor
  • Position on advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships
  • Multiple affiliations
  • Financial relationships, for example equity ownership or investment interest
  • Intellectual property rights (e.g. patents, copyrights and royalties from such rights)
  • Holdings of spouse and/or children that may have financial interest in the work
In addition, interests that go beyond financial interests and compensation (non-financial interests) that may be important to readers should be disclosed. These may include but are not limited to personal relationships or competing interests directly or indirectly tied to this research, or professional interests or personal beliefs that may influence your research.
The corresponding author collects the conflict of interest disclosure forms from all authors. In author collaborations where formal agreements for representation allow it, it is sufficient for the corresponding author to sign the disclosure form on behalf of all authors. Examples of forms can be found
The corresponding author will include a summary statement on the title page that is separate from their manuscript, that reflects what is recorded in the potential conflict of interest disclosure form(s).
See below examples of disclosures:
Funding: This study was funded by X (grant number X).
Conflict of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stock in Company Y. Author C is a member of committee Z.
If no conflict exists, the authors should state:
Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals 

1) Statement of human rights

When reporting studies that involve human participants, authors should include a statement that the studies have been approved by the appropriate institutional and/or national research ethics committee and have been performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration or comparable standards, the authors must explain the reasons for their approach, and demonstrate that the independent ethics committee or institutional review board explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study.
The following statements should be included in the text before the References section:
Ethical approval: “All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.”
For retrospective studies, please add the following sentence:
“For this type of study formal consent is not required.”

2) Statement on the welfare of animals

The welfare of animals used for research must be respected. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals have been followed, and that the studies have been approved by a research ethics committee at the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted (where such a committee exists).
For studies with animals, the following statement should be included in the text before the References section:
Ethical approval: “All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.”
If applicable (where such a committee exists): “All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted.”
If articles do not contain studies with human participants or animals by any of the authors, please select one of the following statements:
“This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.”
“This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.”
“This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.”

Informed consent 

All individuals have individual rights that are not to be infringed. Individual participants in studies have, for example, the right to decide what happens to the (identifiable) personal data gathered, to what they have said during a study or an interview, as well as to any photograph that was taken. Hence it is important that all participants gave their informed consent in writing prior to inclusion in the study. Identifying details (names, dates of birth, identity numbers and other information) of the participants that were studied should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and genetic profiles unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the participant (or parent or guardian if the participant is incapable) gave written informed consent for publication. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve in some cases, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of participants is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic profiles, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning.
The following statement should be included:
Informed consent: “Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.”
If identifying information about participants is available in the article, the following statement should be included:
“Additional informed consent was obtained from all individual participants for whom identifying information is included in this article.”

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    Annals of Behavioral Medicine aims to foster the exchange of knowledge derived from the disciplines involved in the field of behavioral medicine, and the integration of biological, psychosocial, and behavioral factors and principles as they relate to such areas as health promotion, disease prevention, risk factor modification, disease progression, adjustment and adaptation to physical disorders, and rehabilitation. To achieve these goals, much of the journal is devoted to the publication of original empirical articles including reports of randomized controlled trials, observational studies, or other basic and clinical investigations. Integrative reviews of the evidence for the application of behavioral interventions in health care will also be provided. These reviews apply the standards of evidence-based medicine and help bridge the gap between basic science and clinical practice in behavioral medicine.

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