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Medicine - Internal Medicine | Digestive Diseases and Sciences

Digestive Diseases and Sciences

Digestive Diseases and Sciences

Editor-in-Chief: Jonathan Kaunitz
Managing Editor: Meghan Keeffe

ISSN: 0163-2116 (print version)
ISSN: 1573-2568 (electronic version)

Journal no. 10620

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Instructions for Authors

Digestive Diseases and Sciences

CATEGORIES OF MANUSCRIPTS 

Digestive Diseases and Sciences publishes peer-reviewed basic and clinical studies and special articles on all aspects of gastroenterology and hepatology and related fields. The editors will consider and publish the following categories of manuscripts:
• Original Articles: basic or clinic research.
• Reviews (including systematic reviews and meta-analyses): basic or clinical topics.
• Special Category Articles: such as meeting reports (per approval of the editor-in-chief), comments on medical policy, or opinion pieces.
• Case Reports: in general, case reports are not encouraged; the editors will limit the number of case reports per issue and will only consider particularly novel and important clinical observations.
• Editorials: comment on papers published elsewhere in the issue and solicited by the editor-in-chief, and occasional special topics or announcements from the editors.
• Correspondence: concise opinions on papers published in Digestive Diseases and Science online within the past six months. In special circumstances, free-standing concise correspondence related to a unique clinical experience will be considered.
• Stanford Multidisciplinary Seminars: specifically allocated for the Stanford Multidisciplinary Seminars submitted by authors from Stanford and coordinated by the editor for this series.
• Industry Sponsored Articles and Reviews: provided that the relationship is clearly stated in the manuscript, editors will consider industry sponsored articles and reviews.
• DDS New Digestive Science: a forum for presenting exciting new basic science or clinical research findings that are important and novel, warranting early communication in brief. Findings presented in this format must be robust, innovative, and eventually important to medical practice.
• Medical Education and Practice: Scientific articles that focus on medical education or on common facets of medical practice.
Manuscripts should be concise, well organized, and clearly written. Acceptance of manuscripts will be based on originality and importance to the field of digestive diseases. Submitted manuscripts are reviewed by the editor-in-chief and associate editors and, in the majority of cases, by two or more experts in the field. The editors can choose to reject a manuscript without peer review if the manuscript is of insufficient quality or relevance to warrant acceptance. Manuscripts based on or those describing the experimental or therapeutic use of complex mixtures of chemically undefined substances such as plant-derived extracts will be returned without further review. The editors reserve the right to reject poorly written manuscripts even if their scientific content is potentially suitable for publication. Authors are responsible for the use of grammatically correct English. Springer reserves the right to copy edit accepted manuscripts. Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author for final approval, and must be returned within 48 hours of receipt.

ETHICS AND DISCLOSURE POLICIES 

Material submitted to Digestive Diseases and Sciences (DDS) must be original and not published or submitted for publication elsewhere. Meeting abstracts do not constitute prior publication. Authors who have related material under consideration or in press elsewhere should upload a clearly marked copy at the time of their submission to DDS. If part of a contribution has appeared or will appear elsewhere in press, the author must specify the details in the covering letter accompanying the DDS submission. Duplicate publication (by the same author) and plagiarism (by a different author) must be avoided in accordance with “Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals” developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (http://www.icmje.org). Each author must have participated substantially in the work and approve the final version of the manuscript. Where applicable, the following must be disclosed: all financial arrangements (research support, stock ownerships, equity interest, consultancies, or major honoraria) with a company whose product figures prominently in the manuscript; a statement of specific funding support; and identification of third party individuals who provided writing assistance. Reports of clinical trials with a control or comparison group should be presented according to the CONSORT guidelines (http://www.consort-statement.org or JAMA. 2001;285:1987-1991). The clinical trial registry URL (e.g., http://www.clinicaltrials.gov in the United States) and clinical trial number should be included in the body of the manuscript in the methods section.

INVESTIGATIONS INVOLVING HUMAN SUBJECTS  

The journal requires that investigations performed on human subjects have the prior approval of the appropriate institutional or other independent ethics committee on human experimentation. This attestation should appear in the methods section of the manuscript. In countries where such mechanisms for approval do not exist, authors are required to indicate that the research was carried out in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration. A similar assurance is required to document that animal experimentation was performed under appropriate circumstances.

SUBMISSION 

Manuscripts should be submitted online using Springer’s manuscript submission and review system, Editorial Manager, at http://dds.edmgr.com. Editorial Manager supports a wide range of submission file formats:
• Manuscripts: Word, WordPerfect, RTF, TXT, and LaTeX
• Figures: TIFF, GIF, JPEG, EPS, PPT, and Postscript (Color art is FREE for both online and print publication!)
(Please note that PDF is not an acceptable file format for manuscripts or figures.)
Manuscript submission requires the uploading of at least one manuscript file (including references), but a cover letter, figures, figure legends, and tables may also be uploaded as separate files. Files should ideally be posted in the following order (order can be changed after uploading):
1. Cover letter
2. Manuscript
3. Tables
4. Figure legends (if separate)
5. Figures
6. Other
For all article types except correspondence and editorials, submission also requires the suggestion of four to six peer reviewers (experts in the topic area of the manuscript and not recent collaborators or from the same institution as the author[s]), including name, department, institution, and email address.
Once the manuscript is uploaded to Editorial Manager, the corresponding author will receive an email requesting approval of the PDF created from the source files. If not done immediately following upload, it is important to review and approve the PDF to initiate review by the editors.
Should any difficulties arise while submitting manuscripts online, please contact the responsible editorial assistant by clicking “Contact Us” in the Editorial Manager toolbar at the top of each page. Once submitted, a manuscript’s progress through the review process may be tracked in real time.

MANUSCRIPT STYLE 

• Text should conform to accepted standards of American English style and usage. Before submitting an article to DDS, authors for whom English is a second language are encouraged to have their manuscripts reviewed and professionally edited by an individual whose native language is English.
• All manuscripts should be typed in 12-point font size and double-spaced with 1-inch margins. One space only should be used after periods and commas. Authors should retain a copy of all materials.
• The manuscript, if an original article, should be arranged as follows: Title Page, Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, References, Tables, Figure Legends, and Figures.
•The title page should include the title of the article, name(s) of author(s) and highest academic degree(s), department and institution from which the work originated, email and postal addresses of all authors, name of the corresponding author, acknowledgment of grant support, and disclosure of financial arrangements related to the research or assistance with manuscript preparation. Personal acknowledgments, if any, should be given in a separate section at the end of the article.
• Titles should state the main findings of the article, not focus on design of the research, and should not exceed 120 characters in length. Do not use abbreviations in titles.
• Authors of original articles should submit a structured abstract of no more than 250 words organized as applicable into the following categories: Background, Aims, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. Review articles should include a general abstract (i.e., the above categories are not required) also of no more than 250 words. Abbreviations, footnotes, and references should not be used in the abstract, with the exception of standard, repetitive abbreviations such as HCV, GERD, etc. Case reports should not include an abstract, though a short introduction as well as a brief discussion highlighting the key lessons from the case are both welcome.
• A list of four to six keywords should be provided directly below the abstract and for case reports, on the title page. Keywords should express the precise content of the manuscript, as they are used for indexing purposes and should preferably be terms from the Index Medicus Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list.
• Editorials are invited by the editor and should be no longer than 1,500 words. Editorials should not have an abstract. The total number of references should be limited to a maximum of 10. Authors are encouraged to include a table or figure.
• Correspondence should be limited to 500 words and should relate to papers published in DDS within the past six months.
• Case reports should not exceed 600 words and should not include an abstract or more than ten references. Case reports should ideally include a short introduction and brief discussion, the latter highlighting key lessons from the case. There is no maximum word count or number of references (or figures) for case series including several cases or for all other manuscript types. (Case series can be submitted as article type Case Report or Original Article, depending in part on the number of cases being reported.)
• DDS New Digestive Science articles should be limited to 2,000 words, including an abstract of less than 250 words, and should include no more than a total of 3 tables and figures and fewer than 25 references. These submissions will be reviewed in standard fashion, but if accepted, the journal will ensure rapid online and expedited print publication.
• In the body of the manuscript, the ethical guidelines followed should be identified and the statistical methods employed should be outlined. When describing results, report P values and/or confidence intervals. Only standard abbreviations should be used and identified with first usage. Generic names of drugs should be used, although the brand name may be inserted in parentheses.
• Tables should be double-spaced on separate pages, with the table number and table title centered above the table and explanatory notes below the table.
• The figure title and caption material should appear in the legend and not on the figure. Legends should be typed double-spaced on pages separate from the text. Figures should be numbered in one consecutive series in the order in which they are cited in the text. Please include sufficient information in the legends to interpret the figures without reference to the text.
• Illustrations should be clear, with sharp contrast, especially where fine lines such as those of grids or traces are to be retained. Illustrations should be no larger than 8½ × 11 inches, but preferably of a size not needing enlargement or reduction. Non-traceable (raster) line-art and photographs should ideally be provided as TIFFs of at least 600 dpi resolution. Please provide traceable (vector) figures in EPS format. Halftone photographs should be provided as TIFFs of at least 200 dpi resolution.
• References should be cited in the text by Arabic numerals enclosed in square brackets. Only literature that is published or in press (with the name of the journal) may be numbered and listed. Abstracts and letters to the editor may also be cited, but should ideally be less than three years old and identified as such after the title, e.g., [Abstract] or [Letter to Editor]. The references section should be typed double-spaced on pages separate from the text and numbered consecutively in the order in which references are cited in text. Included are last names and initials of authors, title of article, name of publication, year published, volume, and inclusive pages. For references with more than six authors, the fourth and subsequent authors should be replaced with “et al.”; for references with between one and six authors all the authors should be listed. Abbreviations should conform to those used in Index Medicus. References must be verified by the authors against original documents. We recommend the use of tools such as EndNote or Reference Manager for reference management and formatting. The style and punctuation of the references conform to the following examples (text enclosed in [I] symbols below, should be italicized in the manuscript):
  • Article:
    Sandborn WJ, Tremaine WJ, Batts KP, et al. Fecal bile acids, short-chain fatty acids, and bacteria after ileal pouch–anal anastomosis do not differ in patients with pouchitis. [I]Dig Dis Sci[I]. 1995;40:1471–1483.
  • Book:
    Banks PA. [I]Pancreatitis[I]. New York, NY: Plenum Medical; 1979.
  • Contribution to a Book:
    Creutzfeldt W. Endocrine tumors of the pancreas. In: Volk BW, Wellmann KF, eds. [I]The Diabetic Pancreas[I]. New York, NY: Plenum Medical; 1977:551–590.
  • Electronic:
    ISI Web of Knowledge. Journal Citation Reports, 2007 JCR Science Edition. Available at: http://isiwebofknowledge.com. Accessed June 20, 2008.
For authors using EndNote, an output style is available that supports the formatting of in-text citations and reference list.

COPYRIGHT  

Submission of a manuscript to Digestive Diseases and Sciences is a representation that the manuscript has not been published previously in any form, including symposia and proceedings of meeting, except in brief abstract form, and is not currently under consideration for publication elsewhere. Once a manuscript is accepted by the editorial office, authors (or their employers, if they hold the copyright) must sign a statement transferring copyright to Springer Science+Business Media, Inc., before the manuscript can be officially accepted for publication. Authors will receive the statement via email from the production editor; they need not provide a copyright transfer at manuscript submission. Such a written transfer, which previously was assumed to be implicit in the act of submitting a manuscript, is necessary under the U.S. Copyright Law in order for the publisher to carry through the dissemination of research results and reviews as widely and effectively as possible.

SPRINGER OPEN CHOICE  

In addition to the normal publication process (whereby an article is submitted to the journal and access to that article is granted to customers who have purchased a subscription), Springer now provides an alternative publishing option: Springer Open Choice. A Springer Open Choice article receives all the benefits of a regular subscription-based article, but in addition, is made available publicly through Springer’s online platform SpringerLink. To publish via Springer Open Choice, upon acceptance please visit http://www.springeronline.com/openchoice to complete the relevant order form and provide the required payment information. Payment must be received in full before publication or articles will publish as regular subscription-model articles. We regret that Springer Open Choice cannot be ordered for published articles.

ABBREVIATION  

The correct abbreviation of Digestive Diseases and Sciences for abstracting and indexing purposes is: Dig. Dis. Sci. or Dig Dis Sci.
ISSN AND EISSN
The international standard serial number (ISSN) for Digestive Diseases and Sciences is 0163-2116, and the electronic international standard serial number (EISSN) is 1573-2568.

English Language Editing 

For editors and reviewers to accurately assess the work presented in your manuscript you need to ensure the English language is of sufficient quality to be understood. If you need help with writing in English you should consider:
  • Asking a colleague who is a native English speaker to review your manuscript for clarity.
  • Visiting the English language tutorial which covers the common mistakes when writing in English.
  • Using a professional language editing service where editors will improve the English to ensure that your meaning is clear and identify problems that require your review. Two such services are provided by our affiliates Nature Research Editing Service and American Journal Experts. Springer authors are entitled to a 10% discount on their first submission to either of these services, simply follow the links below.
Please note that the use of a language editing service is not a requirement for publication in this journal and does not imply or guarantee that the article will be selected for peer review or accepted.
If your manuscript is accepted it will be checked by our copyeditors for spelling and formal style before publication.

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为便于编辑和评审专家准确评估您稿件中陈述的研究工作,您需要确保您的英语语言质量足以令人理解。如果您需要英文写作方面的帮助,您可以考虑:
● 请一位以英语为母语的同事审核您的稿件是否表意清晰。
● 查看一些有关英语写作中常见语言错误的教程。
● 使用专业语言编辑服务,编辑人员会对英语进行润色,以确保您的意思表达清晰,并识别需要您复核的问题。我们的附属机构 Nature Research Editing Service 和合作伙伴 American Journal Experts 即可提供此类服务。
请注意,使用语言编辑服务并非在期刊上发表文章的必要条件,同时也并不意味或保证文章将被选中进行同行评议或被接受。
如果您的稿件被接受,在发表之前,我们的文字编辑会检查您的文稿拼写是否规范以及文体是否正式。

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エディターと査読者があなたの論文を正しく評価するには、使用されている英語の質が十分に高いことが必要とされます。英語での論文執筆に際してサポートが必要な場合には、次のオプションがあります:
・英語を母国語とする同僚に、原稿で使用されている英語が明確であるかをチェックしてもらう。
・英語で執筆する際のよくある間違いに関する英語のチュートリアルを参照する。
・プロの英文校正サービスを利用する。校正者が原稿の意味を明確にしたり、問題点を指摘し、英語の質を向上させます。Nature Research Editing Service とAmerican Journal Experts の2つは弊社と提携しているサービスです。Springer の著者は、いずれのサービスも初めて利用する際には10%の割引を受けることができます。以下のリンクを参照ください。
英文校正サービスの利用は、投稿先のジャーナルに掲載されるための条件ではないこと、また論文審査や受理を保証するものではないことに留意してください。
原稿が受理されると、出版前に弊社のコピーエディターがスペルと体裁のチェックを行います。

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영어 원고의 경우, 에디터 및 리뷰어들이 귀하의 원고에 실린 결과물을 정확하게 평가할 수 있도록, 그들이 충분히 이해할 수 있을 만한 수준으로 작성되어야 합니다. 만약 영작문과 관련하여 도움을 받기를 원하신다면 다음의 사항들을 고려하여 주십시오:
• 귀하의 원고의 표현을 명확히 해줄 영어 원어민 동료를 찾아서 리뷰를 의뢰합니다.
• 영어 튜토리얼 페이지에 방문하여 영어로 글을 쓸 때 자주하는 실수들을 확인합니다.
• 리뷰에 대비하여, 원고의 의미를 명확하게 해주고 리뷰에서 요구하는 문제점들을 식별해서 영문 수준을 향상시켜주는 전문 영문 교정 서비스를 이용합니다. Nature Research Editing Service와 American Journal Experts에서 저희와 협약을 통해 서비스를 제공하고 있습니다. Springer 저자들이 본 교정 서비스를 첫 논문 투고를 위해 사용하시는 경우 10%의 할인이 적용되며, 아래의 링크를 통하여 확인이 가능합니다.
영문 교정 서비스는 게재를 위한 요구사항은 아니며, 해당 서비스의 이용이 피어 리뷰에 논문이 선택되거나 게재가 수락되는 것을 의미하거나 보장하지 않습니다.
원고가 수락될 경우, 출판 전 저희측 편집자에 의해 원고의 철자 및 문체를 검수하는 과정을 거치게 됩니다.

INQUIRIES  

All inquiries should be addressed to the editor-in-chief or to the managing editor, preferably by email:
Editor-in-Chief
Jonathan D. Kaunitz, MD, FACG, AGAF
UCLA School of Medicine
Bldg. 114, 217E
West Los Angeles VAMC
Los Angeles, CA 90073
Managing Editor
Meghan Keeffe
Email: dds.journal@gmail.com
Fax: 415-383-8428

Ethical Responsibilities of Authors 

This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation can be achieved by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include:
  • The manuscript has not been submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
  • The manuscript has not been published previously (partly or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work (please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the hint of text-recycling (“self-plagiarism”)).
  • A single study is not split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (e.g. “salami-publishing”).
  • No data have been fabricated or manipulated (including images) to support your conclusions
  • No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (“plagiarism”). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions are secured for material that is copyrighted.
    Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
  • Consent to submit has been received explicitly from all co-authors, as well as from the responsible authorities - tacitly or explicitly - at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.
  • Authors whose names appear on the submission have contributed sufficiently to the scientific work and therefore share collective responsibility and accountability for the results.
  • Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, corresponding author, and order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship or in the order of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
  • Adding and/or deleting authors and/or changing the order of authors at revision stage may be justifiably warranted. A letter must accompany the revised manuscript to explain the reason for the change(s) and the contribution role(s) of the added and/or deleted author(s). Further documentation may be required to support your request.
  • Requests for addition or removal of authors as a result of authorship disputes after acceptance are honored after formal notification by the institute or independent body and/or when there is agreement between all authors.
  • Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential proprietary data is excluded.
If there is a suspicion of misconduct, the journal will carry out an investigation following the COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, the allegation seems to raise valid concerns, the accused author will be contacted and given an opportunity to address the issue. If misconduct has been established beyond reasonable doubt, this may result in the Editor-in-Chief’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
  • If the article is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
  • If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction, either an erratum will be placed with the article or in severe cases complete retraction of the article will occur. The reason must be given in the published erratum or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the paper is maintained on the platform, watermarked "retracted" and explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.
  • The author’s institution may be informed.

Compliance with Ethical Standards 

To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.
Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” when submitting a paper:
  • Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
  • Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
  • Informed consent
Please note that standards could vary slightly per journal dependent on their peer review policies (i.e. single or double blind peer review) as well as per journal subject discipline. Before submitting your article check the instructions following this section carefully.
The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.
The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.

Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest 

Authors must disclose all relationships or interests that could have direct or potential influence or impart bias on the work. Although an author may not feel there is any conflict, disclosure of relationships and interests provides a more complete and transparent process, leading to an accurate and objective assessment of the work. Awareness of a real or perceived conflicts of interest is a perspective to which the readers are entitled. This is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation received for consultancy work is inappropriate. Examples of potential conflicts of interests that are directly or indirectly related to the research may include but are not limited to the following:
  • Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number)
  • Honoraria for speaking at symposia
  • Financial support for attending symposia
  • Financial support for educational programs
  • Employment or consultation
  • Support from a project sponsor
  • Position on advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships
  • Multiple affiliations
  • Financial relationships, for example equity ownership or investment interest
  • Intellectual property rights (e.g. patents, copyrights and royalties from such rights)
  • Holdings of spouse and/or children that may have financial interest in the work
In addition, interests that go beyond financial interests and compensation (non-financial interests) that may be important to readers should be disclosed. These may include but are not limited to personal relationships or competing interests directly or indirectly tied to this research, or professional interests or personal beliefs that may influence your research.
The corresponding author collects the conflict of interest disclosure forms from all authors. In author collaborations where formal agreements for representation allow it, it is sufficient for the corresponding author to sign the disclosure form on behalf of all authors. Examples of forms can be found
The corresponding author will include a summary statement in the text of the manuscript in a separate section before the reference list, that reflects what is recorded in the potential conflict of interest disclosure form(s).
See below examples of disclosures:
Funding: This study was funded by X (grant number X).
Conflict of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stock in Company Y. Author C is a member of committee Z.
If no conflict exists, the authors should state:
Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals 

1) Statement of human rights

When reporting studies that involve human participants, authors should include a statement that the studies have been approved by the appropriate institutional and/or national research ethics committee and have been performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration or comparable standards, the authors must explain the reasons for their approach, and demonstrate that the independent ethics committee or institutional review board explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study.
The following statements should be included in the text before the References section:
Ethical approval: “All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.”
For retrospective studies, please add the following sentence:
“For this type of study formal consent is not required.”

2) Statement on the welfare of animals

The welfare of animals used for research must be respected. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals have been followed, and that the studies have been approved by a research ethics committee at the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted (where such a committee exists).
For studies with animals, the following statement should be included in the text before the References section:
Ethical approval: “All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.”
If applicable (where such a committee exists): “All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted.”
If articles do not contain studies with human participants or animals by any of the authors, please select one of the following statements:
“This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.”
“This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.”
“This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.”

Informed consent 

All individuals have individual rights that are not to be infringed. Individual participants in studies have, for example, the right to decide what happens to the (identifiable) personal data gathered, to what they have said during a study or an interview, as well as to any photograph that was taken. Hence it is important that all participants gave their informed consent in writing prior to inclusion in the study. Identifying details (names, dates of birth, identity numbers and other information) of the participants that were studied should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and genetic profiles unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the participant (or parent or guardian if the participant is incapable) gave written informed consent for publication. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve in some cases, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of participants is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic profiles, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning.
The following statement should be included:
Informed consent: “Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.”
If identifying information about participants is available in the article, the following statement should be included:
“Additional informed consent was obtained from all individual participants for whom identifying information is included in this article.”

Research Data Policy 

The journal encourages authors, where possible and applicable, to deposit data that support the findings of their research in a public repository. Authors and editors who do not have a preferred repository should consult Springer Nature’s list of repositories and research data policy.
General repositories - for all types of research data - such as figshare and Dryad may also be used.
Datasets that are assigned digital object identifiers (DOIs) by a data repository may be cited in the reference list. Data citations should include the minimum information recommended by DataCite: authors, title, publisher (repository name), identifier.
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  • Aims and Scope

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    Digestive Diseases and Sciences publishes high-quality, peer-reviewed, original papers addressing aspects of basic/translational and clinical research in gastroenterology, hepatology, and related fields. This well-illustrated journal features comprehensive coverage of basic pathophysiology, new technological advances, and clinical breakthroughs; insights from prominent academicians and practitioners concerning new scientific developments and practical medical issues; and discussions focusing on the latest changes in local and worldwide social, economic, and governmental policies that affect the delivery of care within the disciplines of gastroenterology and hepatology. 

     

    Submit your article to Digestive Diseases and Sciences, a journal that continues to expand and evolve within the fields of gastroenterology and hepatology. 

    Ten reasons to submit your article to DDS:

    • Wide scope covering basic and clinical aspects of gastroenterology, hepatology, outcomes research, and healthcare delivery

    • Rapidly rising impact factor

    • Global and highly regarded editorial board composed of top scholars in the field

    • Editorials written by leading experts

    • Peer review by knowledgeable authorities in the field

    • Highlights developments in translational research

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