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Medicine - Internal Medicine | Clinical and Experimental Nephrology – incl. option to publish open access

Clinical and Experimental Nephrology

Clinical and Experimental Nephrology

Official Publication of the Japanese Society of Nephrology

Editor-in-Chief: Ichiei Narita

ISSN: 1342-1751 (print version)
ISSN: 1437-7799 (electronic version)

Journal no. 10157

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Instructions for Authors

(Revised: Mar 02, 2017)

Clinical and Experimental Nephrology, an official journal of the Japanese Society of Nephrology, is an English-language bimonthly publishing review articles, original papers, images in nephrology, and letters to the editor. Contributions from all parts of the world are welcomed.

Manuscripts should be submitted online to: 

All correspondence should be sent to: 

The Editor-in-Chief, Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Editorial Office, c/o Springer Japan,
Shiroyama Trust Tower 5F, 4-3-1 Toranomon, Minato-Ku, Tokyo 105-6005, Japan
Email:cen@springer.jp
Tel:+81-3- 4533-8084
Fax:+81-3-4533-8081

Authorship 

Only those who have made a substantial contribution to the work should be designated as authors.

Prerequisites for publication 

A copy of the certification form must be submitted to the journal’s editorial office at the same time you submit your manuscripts via Editorial Manager.
IMPORTANT: Upon receipt of a Certificate of Exclusive Submission, manuscripts are officially recognized as submissions.

Compliance with Ethical Standards 

To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.
Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” before the References when submitting a paper:
- Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
- Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
- Informed consent

Conflict of interest 

When submitting a manuscript to Clinical and Experimental Nephrology, authors are required to disclose any financial relationship with a biotechnology manufacturer, a pharmaceutical company, or other commercial entity that has an interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript. Please disclose any potential conflicts of interest by using the following example and inserting it between the text and references:
Potential financial conflicts of interest
Employment: Author name (entity name), Consultancies: Author name (entity name), Honoraria: Author name (entity name), Stock ownership or options: Author name (entity name), Grants received: Author name (entity name).
Authors who have no conflicts of interest to declare, please insert the following statement between the text and references.
Disclosure: All the authors have declared no competing interest.
or
Conflict of interest: The authors have declared that no conflict of interest exists.

Human and Animal Rights 

Clinical and Experimental Nephrology has adopted the following editorial policy regarding ethical approval of studies.
When reporting research dealing with any types of data from human subjects (both observational studies and interventional studies) or animal subjects, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee such as the Institutional Review Board (IRB)/Ethics Committee/Animal Welfare Committee, along with the IRB approval number.
The following statement should be included in the text before the References section:
- Ethical approval: All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee at which the studies were conducted (IRB approval number XXXXX) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
If authors did not obtain an IRB approval number, the IRB approval form should be submitted and a statement should be inserted in the text before the References section affirming that IRB/Ethics Committee/Animal Welfare Committee approval has been obtained.
For studies with animals, the following statement should be included in the text before the References section:
- Ethical approval: All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted (IRB approval number XXXXX).
If articles do not contain studies with human participants or animals by any of the authors, please select one of the following statements:
- This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.
- This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
- This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Registration of clinical trials 

As of January 1, 2015, the journal requires all clinical trials that prospectively assign human subjects to medical interventions, comparison groups, or control groups for the purpose of examining the potential health effects of such interventions, to be registered in one of several free, publicly accessible, non-profit electronically searchable databases such as the one administered by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), which is located at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Submitted manuscripts must include the unique registration number in the abstract as evidence of registration. For details regarding the required minimal registration data set, please go to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) site at http://www.icmje.org/#clin_trials.
The journal accepts registration in the following registries:
• http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ (Clinical Trials)
• http://www.anzctr.org.au/ (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry)
• http://isrctn.org (ISRCTN Register)
• http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/index.asp (Netherlands Trial Register)
• http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr (UMIN Clinical Trials Registry)

Informed Consent 

All individuals have individual rights that are not to be infringed. Individual participants in studies have, for example, the right to decide what happens to the (identifiable) personal data gathered, to what they have said during a study or an interview, as well as to any photograph that was taken. Hence it is important that all participants gave their informed consent in writing prior to inclusion in the study. Identifying details (names, dates of birth, identity numbers and other information) of the participants that were studied should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and genetic profiles unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the participant (or parent or guardian if the participant is incapable) gave written informed consent for publication. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve in some cases, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of participants is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic profiles, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning.
The following statement should be included:
Informed consent: “Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.”
If identifying information about participants is available in the article, the following statement should be included:
“Additional informed consent was obtained from all individual participants for whom identifying information is included in this article.”

Types of articles 

Original articles

An original article should not exceed 4000 words and should be arranged as follows: Abstract, Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion(s) (optional), References.
Manuscripts that exceed the maximum number of words may be returned to the authors without peer-review.

Review articles

Review articles in principle are considered for publication by invitation only. Articles submitted without invitation may also be considered by the Editorial Board, however. If you plan to submit a review article without invitation, please note that it should be no longer than 4,000 words, focused, and deal concisely with contemporary pathophysiological insights, research, diagnosis, or treatment.

Images in nephrology

Classic or novel images of kidney and urinary tract diseases will be published at the discretion of the editor. Follow the instructions described in the “Figures” section for the preparation of images. No more than three authors can be included. The title should contain no more than eight words. The legend for an image should concisely present relevant clinical information and should not exceed 150 words.

Letters to the editor

Letters to the editor will be published at the discretion of the editor. Length must not exceed 500 words, only one table or figure is permitted, and there should be no more than five references. No more than five authors can be included.Clinical and Experimental Nephrology is NOT accepting typical case reports as Letters to the editor. We strongly encourage authors to submit case reports to CEN Case Reports

Preparation of manuscript 

Resubmissions must be accompanied by a letter stating how the text has been revised in accordance with the referees’ comments.

Suggested referees

Authors may provide
  • names
  • addresses
  • phone numbers
  • fax numbers
  • e-mail addresses
of up to three potential referees. These individuals should not be recent collaborators or coauthors (within the last three years), nor should they have provided substantial advice or critique of the submitted manuscript. Authors should note any referees they may wish to exclude and reason(s) for exclusion. The associate editor will make every effort to take these suggestions into account when assigning referees; however, the editor’s decision in this matter is final.

Legal requirements

Submission of a manuscript implies: that its publication has been approved by all coauthors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.

Permissions

Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.

Online submission

Authors should submit their manuscripts online. Electronic submission substantially reduces the editorial processing and reviewing times and shortens overall publication times. Please follow the hyperlink “Submit online” on the right and upload all of your manuscript files following the instructions given on the screen.

Title Page 

Title Page

The title page should include:
  • The name(s) of the author(s)
  • A concise and informative title
  • The affiliation(s) and address(es) of the author(s)
  • The e-mail address, telephone and fax numbers of the corresponding author
  • The number of words in the manuscript

Abstract

The abstract should not exceed 250 words, and should be arranged under the following subheadings for original articles and short communications:
  • Background (the problem addressed and purpose of the study)
  • Methods (study design and methods and materials)
  • Results (research findings)
  • Conclusion(s)

Keywords

Please provide 3 to 6 keywords which can be used for indexing purposes.

Text 

Text formatting

Manuscripts should be submitted in Word.
  • Use a normal, plain font (e.g., 10-point Times Roman) for text.
  • Use italics for emphasis.
  • Use the automatic page numbering function to number the pages.
  • Do not use field functions.
  • Use tab stops or other commands for indents, not the space bar.
  • Use the table function, not spreadsheets, to make tables.

Headings

Please use no more than three levels of displayed headings.

Units, terminology, and abbreviations

Abbreviations should be spelled out at first usage and the abbreviated form used thereafter. The nomenclature and abbreviations of the structures of the kidney should be followed according to the recommendations of the Renal Commission of the International Union of PhysiologicalSciences (Am J Physiol 1988;254:F1-F8, Kidney Int 1988;33:1-7, Pflugers Arch 1988;411;113-129).Generic names should be used for drugs.

Footnotes

Footnotes can be used to give additional information, which may include the citation of a reference included in the reference list. They should not consist solely of a reference citation, and they should never include the bibliographic details of a reference. They should also not contain any figures or tables. Footnotes to the text are numbered consecutively; those to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data). Footnotes to the title or the authors of the article are not given reference symbols. Always use footnotes instead of endnotes.

References 

Citation

Reference citations in the text should be identified by numbers in square brackets. Some examples:
1. Negotiation research spans many disciplines [3].
2. This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman [5].
3. This effect has been widely studied [1-3, 7].

Reference list

The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list.
The entries in the list should be numbered consecutively.
  • Journal article
    Smith JJ. The world of science. Am J Sci. 1999; 36:234–5.
  • Article by DOI
    Slifka MK, Whitton JL. Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. 2000; doi:10.1007/s001090000086
  • Book
    Blenkinsopp A, Paxton P. Symptoms in the pharmacy: a guide to the management of common illness. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 1998.
  • Book chapter
    Wyllie AH, Kerr JFR, Currie AR. Cell death: the significance of apoptosis. In: Bourne GH, Danielli JF, Jeon KW, editors. International review of cytology. London: Academic; 1980. pp. 251–306.
  • Online document
    Doe J. Title of subordinate document. In: The dictionary of substances and their effects. Royal Society of Chemistry. 1999.
    http://www.rsc.org/dose/title of subordinate document. Accessed 15 Jan 1999.
Always use the standard abbreviation of a journal’s name according to the ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations, see
http://www.issn.org/2-22661-LTWA-online.php
For authors using EndNote, Springer provides an output style that supports the formatting of in-text citations and the reference list.

Tables 

  • All tables are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
  • Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
  • For each table, please supply a table caption (title) explaining the components of the table.
  • Identify any previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the table caption.
  • Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included beneath the table body.

Figures 

Electronic Figure Submission

  • Supply all figures electronically.
  • Indicate what graphics program was used to create the artwork.
  • For vector graphics, the preferred format is EPS; for halftones, please use TIFF format. MS Office files are also acceptable.
  • Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
  • Name your figure files with "Fig" and the figure number, e.g., Fig1.eps.

Line art

  • Definition: Black and white graphic with no shading.
  • Do not use faint lines and/or lettering and check that all lines and lettering within the figures are legible at final size.
  • All lines should be at least 0.1 mm (0.3 pt) wide.
  • Scanned line drawings and line drawings in bitmap format should have a minimum resolution of 1200 dpi.
  • Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.

Halftone art

  • Definition: Photographs, drawings, or paintings with fine shading, etc.
  • If any magnification is used in the photographs, indicate this by using scale bars within the figures themselves.
  • Halftones should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.

Combination art

  • Definition: a combination of halftone and line art, e.g., halftones containing line drawing, extensive lettering, color diagrams, etc.
  • Combination artwork should have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi.

Color art

  • Color art is free of charge for online publication.
  • If black and white will be shown in the print version, make sure that the main information will still be visible. Many colors are not distinguishable from one another when converted to black and white. A simple way to check this is to make a xerographic copy to see if the necessary distinctions between the different colors are still apparent.
  • If the figures will be printed in black and white, do not refer to color in the captions.
  • Color illustrations should be submitted as RGB (8 bits per channel).

Figure lettering

  • To add lettering, it is best to use Helvetica or Arial (sans serif fonts).
  • Keep lettering consistently sized throughout your final-sized artwork, usually about 2–3 mm (8–12 pt).
  • Variance of type size within an illustration should be minimal, e.g., do not use 8-pt type on an axis and 20-pt type for the axis label.
  • Avoid effects such as shading, outline letters, etc.
  • Do not include titles or captions into your illustrations.

Figure numbering

  • All figures are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
  • Figures should always be cited in the text in consecutive numerical order.
  • Figure parts should be denoted by lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.).
  • If an appendix appears in your article/chapter and it contains one or more figures, continue the consecutive numbering of the main text. Do not number the appendix figures, "A1, A2, A3, etc." Figures in online appendices (Electronic supplementary Material) should, however, be numbered separately.

Figure captions

  • Each figure should have a concise caption describing accurately what the figure depicts. Include the captions in the text file of the manuscript, not in the figure file.
  • Figure captions begin with the term Fig. in bold type, followed by the figure number, also in bold type.
  • No punctuation is to be included after the number, nor is any punctuation to be placed at the end of the caption.
  • Identify all elements found in the figure in the figure caption; and use boxes, circles, etc., as coordinate points in graphs.
  • Identify previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference citation at the end of the figure caption.

Figure placement and size

  • Figures should be submitted separately from the text, if possible.
  • When preparing your figures, size figures to fit in the column width.
  • Figures should be 39 mm, 84 mm, 129 mm, or 174 mm wide and not higher than 234 mm.
    The publisher reserves the right to reduce or enlarge figures.

Accessibility

In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your figures, please make sure that
  • All figures have descriptive captions (blind users could then use a text-tospeech software or a text-to-Braille hardware)
  • Patterns are used instead or in addition to colors for conveying information (color-blind users would then be able to distinguish the visual elements)
  • Any figure lettering has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1.

Electronic supplementary material 

Electronic supplementary material will be published in the online version only. It may consist of
  • Information that cannot be printed: animations, video clips, sound recordings
  • Information that is more convenient in electronic form: sequences, spectral data, etc.
  • Large original data, e.g., additional tables, illustrations, etc.

Submission

  • Supply all supplementary material in standard file formats.
  • Please include in each file the following information: article title, journal name, author names; affiliation and e-mail address of the corresponding author.
  • To accommodate user downloads, please keep in mind that larger-sized files may require very long download times and that some users may experience other problems during downloading.

Audio, video, and animations:

  • Resolution: 16:9 or 4:3
  • Maximum file size: 25 GB
  • Minimum video duration: 1 sec
  • Supported file formats: avi, wmv, mp4, mov, m2p, mp2, mpg, mpeg, flv, mxf, mts, m4v, 3gp

Text and presentations

  • Submit your material in PDF format; .doc or .ppt files are not suitable for long-term viability.
  • A collection of figures may also be combined in a PDF file.

Spreadsheets

  • Spreadsheets should be converted to PDF if no interaction with the data is intended.
  • If the readers should be encouraged to make their own calculations, spreadsheets should be submitted as .xls files (MS Excel).

Specialized formats

  • Specialized formats such as .pdb (chemical), .wrl (VRML), .nb (Mathematica notebook), and .tex can also be supplied.

Collecting multiple files

  • It is possible to collect multiple files in a .zip or .gz file.

Numbering:

  • If any supplementary material is supplied, the text must make specific mention of the material as a citation, similar to that of figures and tables.
  • Refer to the supplementary files as “Online Resource”, e.g., "... as shown in the animation (Online Resource 3)", “... additional data are given in Online Resource 4”.
  • Name the files consecutively, e.g. “ESM_3.mpg”, “ESM_4.pdf”.

Captions

  • For each supplementary material, please supply a concise caption describing the content of the file.

Processing of supplementary files

  • Electronic supplementary material will be published as received from the author without any conversion, editing, or reformatting.

Accessibility

In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your supplementary files, please make sure that
  • The manuscript contains a descriptive caption for each supplementary material
  • Video files do not contain anything that flashes more than three times per second (so that users prone to seizures caused by such effects are not put at risk)

Permissions

If you include figures that have already been published elsewhere, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format. Please be aware that some publishers do not grant electronic rights for free and that Springer will not be able to refund any costs that may have occurred to receive these permissions. In such cases, material from other sources should be used.

Ethical Responsibilities of Authors 

This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation can be achieved by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include:
  • The manuscript has not been submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
  • The manuscript has not been published previously (partly or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work (please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the hint of text-recycling (“self-plagiarism”)).
  • A single study is not split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (e.g. “salami-publishing”).
  • No data have been fabricated or manipulated (including images) to support your conclusions
  • No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (“plagiarism”). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions are secured for material that is copyrighted.
    Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
  • Consent to submit has been received explicitly from all co-authors, as well as from the responsible authorities - tacitly or explicitly - at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.
  • Authors whose names appear on the submission have contributed sufficiently to the scientific work and therefore share collective responsibility and accountability for the results.
  • Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, corresponding author, and order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship or in the order of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
  • Adding and/or deleting authors at revision stage may be justifiably warranted. A letter must accompany the revised manuscript to explain the role of the added and/or deleted author(s). Further documentation may be required to support your request.
  • Requests for addition or removal of authors as a result of authorship disputes after acceptance are honored after formal notification by the institute or independent body and/or when there is agreement between all authors.
  • Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential proprietary data is excluded.
If there is a suspicion of misconduct, the journal will carry out an investigation following the COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, the allegation seems to raise valid concerns, the accused author will be contacted and given an opportunity to address the issue. If misconduct has been established beyond reasonable doubt, this may result in the Editor-in-Chief’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
  • If the article is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
  • If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction, either an erratum will be placed with the article or in severe cases complete retraction of the article will occur. The reason must be given in the published erratum or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the paper is maintained on the platform, watermarked "retracted" and explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.
  • The author’s institution may be informed.

After acceptance 

Upon acceptance of your article you will receive a link to the special Author Query Application at Springer’s web page where you can sign the Copyright Transfer Statement online and indicate whether you wish to order OpenChoice. Once the Author Query Application has been completed, your article will be processed and you will receive the proofs. You will also receive a separate e-mail for ordering offprints and printing of figures in color.

Open Choice 

In addition to the normal publication process (whereby an article is submitted to the journal and access to that article is granted to customers who have purchased a subscription), Springer provides an alternative publishing option: Springer Open Choice. A Springer Open Choice article receives all the benefits of a regular subscription-based article, but in addition is made available publicly through Springer’s online platform SpringerLink.

Copyright and license term – CC BY

Open Choice articles do not require transfer of copyright as the copyright remains with the author. In opting for open access, the author(s) agree to publish the article under the Creative Commons Attribution License.

Open Choice

In addition to the normal publication process (whereby an article is submitted to the journal and access to that article is granted to customers who have purchased a subscription), Springer provides an alternative publishing option: Springer Open Choice. A Springer Open Choice article receives all the benefits of a regular subscription-based article, but in addition is made available publicly through Springer’s online platform SpringerLink.

Copyright transfer

Authors will be asked to transfer copyright of the article to the Japanese Society of Nephrology. This will ensure the widest possible protection and dissemination of information under copyright laws.

Offprints

Offprints can be ordered by the corresponding author.

Color illustrations

Online publication of color illustrations is free of charge. For color in the print version, authors will be expected to make a contribution towards the extra costs (152,000 yen per article). Otherwise the figures will be printed in black and white. Please note that, in such cases, it is authors’ responsibility to prepare figures to be illustrative enough to convey the necessary information even after they are converted into black and white.

Proof reading

The purpose of the proof is to check for typesetting or conversion errors and the completeness and accuracy of the text, tables and figures. Substantial changes in content, e.g., new results, corrected values, title and authorship, are not allowed without the approval of the Editor. After online publication, further changes can only be made in the form of an Erratum, which will be hyperlinked to the article.

Online First

The article will be published online after receipt of the corrected proofs. This is the official first publication citable with the DOI. After release of the online issue, the paper can also be cited by issue and page numbers.

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  • Aims and Scope

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    Clinical and Experimental Nephrology is a peer-reviewed bimonthly journal, officially published by the Japanese Society of Nephrology (JSN) to create an international forum for the discussion of research and issues relating to the study of nephrology. Out of respect to the founders of JSN, the title of this journal uses the term, ”nephrology”, a word created and brought into use with the establishment of JSN (Japanese Journal of Nephrology, Vol. 2, No.1, 1960). In this journal, we publish articles on all aspects of nephrology, including basic, experimental, and clinical research, to provide a means of sharing research findings and ideas not only for the members of JSN, but for all researchers who wish to contribute to a better understanding of advances in nephrology. The journal is unique in that it introduces to an international readership original reports from Japan and also the clinical standards discussed and agreed by JSN.
    We sincerely hope that the journal will provide an ideal scientific forum for communication and development of research in nephrology and that the information exchanged in these pages will lead to the solution of many un-answered questions in nephrology. Contributions are welcomed from all parts of the world.

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    Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all coauthors, as well as by the responsible authorities at the institute where the work has been carried out; that, if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication, the authors agree to automatic transfer of the copyright to the Japanese Society of Nephrology; and that the manuscript will not be published elsewhere in any language without the consent of the copyright holder.

    All articles published in this journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article (e.g. as offprints) as well as all translation rights. No material published in this journal may be reproduced photographically or stored on microfilm, in electronic databases, video disks, etc., without first obtaining written permission from the Japanese Society of Nephrology.

    The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, etc., in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations.

    While the advice and information in this journal are believed to be true and accurate at the date of its going to press, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.

    Special regulation for photocopies in the USA: Photocopies may be made for personal or in-house use beyond the limitations stipulated under Section 107 or 108 of US Copyright Law, provided a fee is paid. All fees should be paid to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA, stating the ISSN number, the volume, and the first and last page numbers of each article copied. The copyright holder's consent does not include copying for general distribution, promotion, new works, or resale. In these cases, specific written permission must first be obtained from the publisher and the copyright holder.

    The Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (CISTI) provides a comprehensive, world-wide document delivery service for all Springer-Verlag journals. For more information, or to place an order for a copyright-cleared Springer-Verlag document, please contact Client Assistant, Document Delivery, Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information, Ottawa K1A 0S2, Canada, Tel. 613- 993-9251, Fax -613-952-8243, e-mail: cisti.docdel@nrc.ca.

    © The Japanese Society of Nephrology

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