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New highlights on the current burden of infectious diseases and on major trends in infectious mortality, as well as on the major determinants of infectious disease spread, such as mobility and urbanization, governance, health care systems, poverty and social exclusion.
Contribute to a better understanding of the reasons why sub-Saharan Africa is lagging so much behind the other regions of the world in terms of global mortality decline.
Forty years ago, the age-old battle against infectious diseases as a major threat to human health was believed close to being won. However, by the late twentieth century, the increase of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases was evident in both low and high income countries. About 30 new infectious diseases have been identified in the last 20 years. Among the "new" diseases, and most importantly, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic, with 40 million persons infected and 25 million deaths since its first description, presents one of the most significant health, societal and security challenges facing the global community. The interaction of HIV/AIDS with tuberculosis, malaria and bacterial infections have increased HIV-related morbidity and mortality, and in turn, the HIV pandemic has brought about devastating increases in tuberculosis.
Understanding the population impact and the dynamics of infection diseases in the most affected region is critical to efforts to reduce the morbidity and mortality of such infections, and for decisions on where to use limited resources in the fight against infections.
This book aims to contribute to these efforts by offering a demographic and epidemiological perspective on emerging and reemerging infections in sub-Saharan Africa.
Preface: Michel Caraël and Judith Glynn,- Introduction: France Meslé and Vladimir M. Shkolnikov,- PART I. Trends and diseases: 1:Mortality of the world’s population 1950-2000: divergence replaces convergence from the late 1980s: Kath Moser et al,- 2: The impact of population growth on the epidemiology and evolution of infectious diseases: Geoff P Garnett and James JC Lewis,- 3: Why child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa has ceased declining since the early 1990s. The example of of Senegal, a country where HIV epidemic has remained at a low level: Gilles Pison,- 4: Malaria, climate change and possible impacts on populations in Africa: Andrew K. Githeko,- 5: Economic crisis and changes in mortality due to infectious and parasitic diseases in Antananarivo, Madagascar: Dominique Waltisperger and France Meslé,- 6: Economic and ethical aspects of controlling infectious diseases: Joseph Brunet-Jailly,- PART II. HIV and ist impact: 1: HIV infection in young adults in Africa: context, risks, and opportunities for prevention: Michel Caraël and Judith Glynn,- 2: Sexual behaviour change, marriage and HIV prevalence in Zambia: Emma Slaymaker and Basia Zaba,- 3: Migration, HIV/AIDS knowledge, perception of risk and condom use in the Senegal River valley: Richard Lalou et al,- 4: HIV in Zimbabwe: measurement, trends and impact: Owen Mugurungi et al ,- 5: The impact of HIV infection on tuberculosis in Africa: Judith R Glynn,- 6: Impact of HIV on Mortality in Southern Africa: Evidence from demographic surveillance: Ian M. Timæus,- 7: The economic impact of HIV/AIDS in developing countries: an end of systematic underestimation: Jean-Paul Moatti and Bruno Ventelou