Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1995, XIV, 281 pp. 106 figs., 24 tabs.
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Some of the latest developments in the automation of therapeutic interventions in anaesthesiology have been covered in this book, with special emphasis on the automated control of anaesthetic drug delivery, neuromuscular blockade, artificial ventilation, and blood pressure. Of particular interest to the reader will be the presentation of different methodological approaches to automated control such as neuronal nets, fuzzy set theory, and fuzzy control and model-based adaptive approaches and their application to different clinical problems. The open-loop and closed-loop approaches to automated control have been discussed as have the requirements necessary for monitoring biological signals and the paramters for the anaesthesia machines with particular focus on recently developed feedback methods for the automated delivery of volatile and intravenous anaesthetic agents based on EEG or evoked potentials. The last chapter discusses the legal requirements and liability aspects for automated systems in medicine, especially in view of recently established regulations and guidelines (e.g. law for medical products). The book represents the proceedings of an international workshop which was held in Bonn, Germany, in May 1994. The contributions come from various specialties, including medicine and anaesthesiology, but also mathematics and operations research, neuroinformatics, engineering, regulatory authorities, and industry.
Content Level »Professional/practitioner
Keywords »Anesthetic Drug Delivery - Automated Control - Automatische Steuerung - Dosierung von Anästhetika - Open-Loop and Closed-Loop Control - Open-Loop und Closed-Loop Steuerung - Therapeutic Monitoring - Therapeutisches Monitoring
I General Methods of Control and Automation.- Decision Support via Fuzzy Technology.- Principles of Adaptive Neural Networks for Control.- Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.- II Assessment and Evaluation of Signals and Measurements.- a) Anaesthesia Machine Monitoring.- Which Monitoring Qualities Ensure Proper Machine Function?.- Reliability, Testability, Alarms, and the Fail-Safe Concept.- The Differences Between Closed-circuit, Low-flow, and High-flow Breathing Systems: Controllability, Monitoring, and Engineering Aspects.- b) Therapeutic Monitoring of Patients.- Does the EEG Measure Therapeutic Opioid Drug Effect?.- Somatosensory Evoked Potentials: Objective Measures of Antinöciception in the Anaesthetized Patient?.- Do Auditory Evoked Potentials Assess Awareness?.- Should Neuromuscular Transmission Be Monitored Routinely During Anaesthesia?.- III Control and Automation of Artificial Ventilation.- Pulmonary Function and Ventilatory Patterns During Anaesthesia.- What Can and What Should Be Controlled During Artificial Ventilation?.- Closed-Loop Control of Artificial Ventilation.- IV Control and Automation of Drug Delivery.- a) Volatile Anaesthetics.- Adaptive Closed-Loop Control of End-Tidal Concentrations of Volatile Agents.- Fuzzy Control of Arterial Blood Pressure by Volatile Anaesthetics.- Model-based Adaptive Control of Volatile Anaesthetics by Quantitative EEG.- b) Intravenous Anaesthetics.- The Target of Control: Plasma Concentrations or Drug Effect.- Open-Loop Control Systems and Their Performance for Intravenous Anaesthetics.- Feedback Control of Intravenous Anaesthetics by Quantitative EEG.- Adaptive Control of Intravenous Anaesthesia by Evoked Potentials.- c) Neuromuscular Blocking Agents and Vasoactive Drugs New Drug-Delivery Devices.- Model-based Adaptive Control of Neuromuscular Blocking Agents.- Supervisory Adaptive Control of Arterial Blood Pressure by Vasoactive Agents.- New Drug-Delivery Devices for Volatile Anaesthetics.- New Drug-Delivery Systems for Intravenous Anaesthetics.- V Nonmedical Aspects of Automated Control: Requirements and Liability for Automated Systems.- The Technical Point of View.- Regulatory Aspects.- The Manufacturer’s Point of View.