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The existence of high speed, inexpensive computing has made it easy to look at data in ways that were once impossible. Where once a data analyst was forced to make restrictive assumptions before beginning, the power of the computer now allows great freedom in deciding where an analysis should go. One area that has benefited greatly from this new freedom is that of non parametric density, distribution, and regression function estimation, or what are generally called smoothing methods. Most people are familiar with some smoothing methods (such as the histogram) but are unlikely to know about more recent developments that could be useful to them. If a group of experts on statistical smoothing methods are put in a room, two things are likely to happen. First, they will agree that data analysts seriously underappreciate smoothing methods. Smoothing meth ods use computing power to give analysts the ability to highlight unusual structure very effectively, by taking advantage of people's abilities to draw conclusions from well-designed graphics. Data analysts should take advan tage of this, they will argue.
Content Level »Research
Keywords »Estimator - Excel - Likelihood - Projection Pursuit - best fit - correlation - statistical software
1. Introduction.- 1.1 Smoothing Methods: a Nonparametric/Parametric Compromise.- 1.2 Uses of Smoothing Methods.- 1.3 Outline of the Chapters.- Background material.- Computational issues.- Exercises.- 2. Simple Univariate Density Estimation.- 2.1 The Histogram.- 2.2 The Frequency Polygon.- 2.3 Varying the Bin Width.- 2.4 The Effectiveness of Simple Density Estimators.- Background material.- Computational issues.- Exercises.- 3. Smoother Univariate Density Estimation.- 3.1 Kernel Density Estimation.- 3.2 Problems with Kernel Density Estimation.- 3.3 Adjustments and Improvements to Kernel Density Estimation.- 3.4 Local Likelihood Estimation.- 3.5 Roughness Penalty and Spline-Based Methods.- 3.6 Comparison of Univariate Density Estimators.- Background material.- Computational issues.- Exercises.- 4. Multivariate Density Estimation.- 4.1 Simple Density Estimation Methods.- 4.2 Kernel Density Estimation.- 4.3 Other Estimators.- 4.4 Dimension Reduction and Projection Pursuit.- 4.5 The State of Multivariate Density Estimation.- Background material.- Computational issues.- Exercises.- 5. Nonparametrie Regression.- 5.1 Scatter Plot Smoothing and Kernel Regression.- 5.2 Local Polynomial Regression.- 5.3 Bandwidth Selection.- 5.4 Locally Varying the Bandwidth.- 5.5 Outliers and Autocorrelation.- 5.6 Spline Smoothing.- 5.7 Multiple Predictors and Additive Models.- 5.8 Comparing Nonparametric Regression Methods.- Background material.- Computational issues.- Exercises.- 6. Smoothing Ordered Categorical Data.- 6.1 Smoothing and Ordered Categorical Data.- 6.2 Smoothing Sparse Multinomials.- 6.3 Smoothing Sparse Contingency Tables.- 6.4 Categorical Data, Regression, and Density Estimation.- Background material.- Computational issues.- Exercises.- 7. Further Applications of Smoothing.- 7.1 Discriminant Analysis.- 7.2 Goodness-of-Fit Tests.- 7.3 Smoothing-Based Parametric Estimation.- 7.4 The Smoothed Bootstrap.- Background material.- Computational issues.- Exercises.- Appendices.- A. Descriptions of the Data Sets.- B. More on Computational Issues.- References.- Author Index.