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Do formulas exist for the solution to algebraical equations in one variable of any degree like the formulas for quadratic equations? The main aim of this book is to give new geometrical proof of Abel's theorem, as proposed by Professor V.I. Arnold. The theorem states that for general algebraical equations of a degree higher than 4, there are no formulas representing roots of these equations in terms of coefficients with only arithmetic operations and radicals.
A secondary, and more important aim of this book, is to acquaint the reader with two very important branches of modern mathematics: group theory and theory of functions of a complex variable.
This book also has the added bonus of an extensive appendix devoted to the differential Galois theory, written by Professor A.G. Khovanskii.
As this text has been written assuming no specialist prior knowledge and is composed of definitions, examples, problems and solutions, it is suitable for self-study or teaching students of mathematics, from high school to graduate.
2: The complex numbers. 2.1. Fields and polynomials. 2.2. The field of complex numbers. 2.3. Uniqueness of the field of complex numbers. 2.4. Geometrical descriptions of the field of complex numbers. 2.5. The trigonometric form of the complex numbers. 2.6. Continuity. 2.7. Continuous curves. 2.8. Images of curves: the basic theorem of the algebra of complex numbers. 2.9. The Riemann surface of the function w = SQRTz. 2.10. The Riemann surfaces of more complicated functions. 2.11. Functions representable by radicals. 2.12. Monodromy groups of multi-valued functions. 2.13. Monodromy groups of functions representable by radicals. 2.14. The Abel theorem.
3: Hints, Solutions and Answers. 3.1.Problems of Chapter 1. 3.2. Problems of Chapter 2. Drawings of Riemann surfaces; F. Aicardi.
Appendix. Solvability of equations by explicit formulae; A. Khovanskii.A.1. Explicit solvability of equations. A.2. Liouville's theory. A.3. Picard-Vessiot's theory. A.4. Topological obstructions for the representation of functions by quadratures. A.5.S-functions. A.6. Monodromy group. A.7. Obstructions for the representability of functions by quadratures. A.8. Solvability of algebraic equations. A.9. The monodromy pair. A.10. Mapping of the semi-plane to a polygon bounded by arcs of circles. A.11. Topological obstructions for the solvability of differential equations. A.12. Algebraic functions of several variables. A.13. Functions of several complex variables representable by quadratures and generalized quadratures. A.14. SC-germs. A.15. Topological obstruction for the solvability of the holonomic systems of linear differential equations. A.16. Topological obstruction for the solvability of the holonomic systems of linear differential equations. Bibliography.