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Materials - Special types of Materials | Purification Process and Characterization of Ultra High Purity Metals - Application of Basic Science

Purification Process and Characterization of Ultra High Purity Metals

Application of Basic Science to Metallurgical Processing

Waseda, Yoshio, Isshiki, Minoru (Eds.)

2002, XIV, 413 p.

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  • About this book

Substantial enhancement of important properties of materials is manifested when impurity concentrations are reduced to extremely low levels. Current technologies are not fully adequate and the frontiers of our present knowledge of theory and practice need exploration. New concepts and methodologies are evolving and novel purification processes are beinb developed for producing ultra-high-purity metals with purpose-designed atomic patterns for sophisticated functional applications. This book gives a critical, up-to-date evaluation starting with an extended introductory treatise on the fundamentals, followed by a detailed description of the new methods of purification of transition metals and rare earth metals, including their characterization. The subject is approached both from the basic science and applied engineering points of view.

Content Level » Research

Keywords » Metall - Ultra-high purity - dynamics - electrical property - hydrogen - laser - mechanical property - metal - rare earth metals - refractory - surfaces - thermodynamics - transition metals

Related subjects » Characterization & Evaluation of Materials - Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering - Production & Process Engineering - Special types of Materials

Table of contents 

I Fundamentals and the Present Status of Purification of Metals.- 1 The Thermodynamics of Oxygen in Reactive Metals.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Various Techniques for Removing Oxygen from Reactive Metals.- 1.2.1 Solid State Electrotransport.- 1.2.2 Deoxidation Using Metal/Metal Oxide Equilibrium.- 1.2.3 Calcium Halide Flux Deoxidation.- 1.2.4 Electrochemical Deoxidation.- 1.2.5 Deoxidation by Oxyhalide Formation.- 1.3 The Thermodynamics of Oxygen in Reactive Metals.- 1.3.1 The Principle of Measurement of Ultra-Low-Oxygen Potentials.- 1.3.2 Gibbs Energies of Solution of Oxygen in Reactive Metals.- 1.4 The Removal of Oxygen from Reactive Metals.- 1.4.1 The Thermodynamic Properties of Oxygen in Rare Earth Metals.- 1.4.2 The Removal of Oxygen from Rare Earth Metals.- 1.4.3 Comparison with Other Direct Oxygen Removal Techniques.- 1.5 Purity Evaluation of Deoxidized Reactive Metals.- 1.5.1 The Removal of Oxygen from Titanium.- 1.5.2 Purity Evaluation of Deoxidized Titanium.- 1.6 Summary.- References.- 2 Principles of Metal Purification and Purity Evaluation.- 2.1 Methods of Purification.- 2.1.1 Pyrometallurgical Refining.- 2.1.2 Hydrometallurgical Purification.- 2.1.3 Electrochemical Purification.- 2.1.4 Purification Methods Based on Solid-Liquid Equilibria.- 2.1.5 Purifieation by Seleetive Volatilization.- 2.1.6 Purifieation by Eleetrotransport.- 2.2 Purity Evaluation.- 2.2.1 Direct Indication of Purity.- 2.2.2 Indirect Indieation of Purity.- 2.2.3 Comparison of Achieved Purity Levels.- References.- 3 The Purification of Base Transition Metals.- 3.1 The Purification of Titanium.- 3.2 The Purification of Vanadium.- 3.3 The Purification of Chromium.- 3.4 The Purification of Manganese.- 3.5 The Purification of Iron.- 3.6 The Purification of Cobalt.- 3.7 The Purification of Nickel.- 3.8 The Purification of Copper.- 3.9 The Purification of Zinc.- References.- 4 Refractory Metals.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Group IVa Metals.- 4.2.1 Titanium.- 4.2.2 Zirconium and Hafnium.- 4.3 Group Va Metals.- 4.3.1 Vanadium.- 4.3.2 Niobium.- 4.3.3 Tantalum.- 4.4 Group VIa Metals.- 4.4.1 Chromium.- 4.4.2 Molybdenum.- 4.4.3 Thngsten.- 4.5 Group VIIa Metals.- 4.5.1 Rhenium.- 4.6 Interstitial Impurities.- 4.6.1 General Remarks.- 4.6.2 Nitrogen and Hydrogen.- 4.6.3 Oxygen.- 4.6.4 Carbon.- 4.6.5 Purification by Gettering with a More Reactive Metal.- 4.7 Purification by Electrotransport.- 4.8 Deterioration of the Purity of UHP Refractory Metals During Preparation or Application.- References.- 5 Purification of the Rare Earth Metals.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Background Information.- 5.2.1 Impurities in Rare Earth Metals.- 5.2.2 The Basic Properties of the Rare Earths.- 5.3 Purification Techniques for Rare Earth Metals.- 5.3.1 Vacuum Melting and Vacuum Degassing.- 5.3.2 Zone Refining.- 5.3.3 Vapor Techniques.- 5.3.4 Solid State Electrotransport (SSE).- 5.4 Retaining Purity During Sampie Preparation and Crystal Growth.- 5.4.1 Combining Purification and Crystal Growth.- 5.4.2 Crystal Growth After Purification.- 5.5 Purification Routes for Rare Earth Metals.- 5.6 Individual Elements.- References.- II New Methods for Purification.- 6 Hydrogen Plasma Arc Melting.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 The Removal of Nonmetallic Impurities by Hydrogen Plasma Arc Melting.- 6.2.1 The Removal of Oxygen, Nitrogen and Carbon from Iron.- 6.2.2 The Removal of Oxygen and Nitrogen from Cobalt.- 6.2.3 The Removal of Oxygen and Nitrogen from Refractory Metals.- 6.3 The Removal of Metallic Impurity Elements by Hydrogen Plasma Arc Melting.- 6.3.1 The Purification of Commercially Pure Refractory Metals.- 6.3.2 The Removal of Alloying Elements from Refractory Metal Based Alloys.- 6.3.3 The Mechanism for Removing Metallic Impurity Elements from the Melt by HPAM.- 6.4 Summary.- References.- 7 Ion-Beam Deposition.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 The Basic Principle of the Ion-Beam Deposition Method.- 7.3 The Design Concepts of Ion-Beam Deposition Systems.- 7.3.1 The Ion Energy Range.- 7.3.2 Ion Current Density and Vacuum Requirements.- 7.3.3 Deposition Time and Dose Calculation.- 7.3.4 The Vacuum Pumping System.- 7.3.5 The Production of a High-Intensity, Low-Energy Metal Ion Beam.- 7.3.6 Ion Beam Transport and Deceleration.- 7.3.7 Sample Manipulation and Film Deposition.- 7.4 High-Purity and High-Corrosion-Resistance Fe Film Formation.- 7.5 Summary.- References.- 8 Purification and Isotope Separation by Laser Techniques.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.1.1 Laser Light.- 8.2 Absorption and Emission Processes of Light.- 8.3 Laser Manipulation of Atoms.- 8.3.1 Radiation Force.- 8.3.2 Deceleration of an Atom.- 8.3.3 Deflection of an Atomic Beam.- 8.3.4 Reflection and Focusing of the Atomic Beam.- 8.4 Laser Isotope Separation.- 8.4.1 Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) of Uranium.- 8.4.2 Molecular Laser Isotope Separation (MLIS) of Uranium.- 8.4.3 Other Elements.- 8.5 Light-Induced Drift.- 8.5.1 The Principle.- References.- III Characterization.- 9 Electrical Properties of Ultra-High-Purity Metals.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 The Temperature Dependence of the Electrical Resistivity.- 9.3 Specimen Preparation and Resistivity Measurements.- 9.3.1 Specimen Preparation.- 9.3.2 Resistivity Measurements.- 9.4 The Anisotropy of the Size Effect in dc Electrical Resistivity.- 9.4.1 Dependence on the Surface Orientation.- 9.4.2 Dependence on the Axis Orientation (Direction of Current Flow).- 9.5 Anisotropy of the dc Electrical Resistivity in Cubic Metals.- 9.5.1 Anisotropy of the Bulk Residual Resistivity ?b at 4.2 K.- 9.5.2 The Temperature Dependence of the Anisotropy.- 9.6 Nonlinear I-V Characteristics in Ultra-High-Purity Metals.- 9.7 Ballistic Electron Transport Characteristics in Ultra-High-Purity Metals: Negative Bend Resistance.- 9.8 Magnetic Breakdown Oscillation in Magnetoresistance.- 9.9 Summary.- References.- 10 Surfaces and Interfaces.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Thermodynamic Features of Surfaces and Interfaces.- 10.2.1 Interfacial Energy.- 10.2.2 Interfacial Segregation.- 10.2.3 Interfacial Structure.- 10.3 Measurement of Surface and Interface Compositions.- 10.4 Surface Behavior.- 10.4.1 Surface Segregation.- 10.4.2 Native Oxide Layer.- 10.5 Interfacial Behavior.- 10.5.1 Grain Boundary Segregation in Polycrystals.- 10.5.2 Grain Boundary Segregation in Bicrystals.- 10.6 Further Approaches for Attaining Surface and Interface Characterization.- 10.7 Summary.- References.- 11 Mechanical Properties.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 The Onset of Slip.- 11.3 The Plastic Behavior of fcc Metals.- 11.3.1 The Work-Hardening Behavior and Microstructure of fcc Metals.- 11.3.2 Thermally Activated Dislocation Motion in fcc Metals.- 11.4 The Plastie Behaviour of Pure bee Metals.- 11.4.1 The Slip Geometry of Pure bcc Metals ..- 11.4.2 The Work-Hardening Behaviour and Microstructure of bcc Metals.- 11.4.3 The Effective Flow Stress of bcc Metals.- 11.4.4 The Flow-Stress Asymmetry of bcc Metals.- 11.4.5 Anomalous Slip in bcc Metals.- 11.4.6 Softening of bcc Metals by Atomic Defects.- 11.4.7 The Kink Theory of bcc Metals.- 11.4.8 Elementary Slip Steps in High-Purity bcc Metals.- 11.4.9 Conclusions for Slip in bcc Metals.- 11.5 Summary.- References.- 12 Atomic Defects in High-Purity Metals: Fundamentals and Equilibrium Concentrations.- 12.1 What Is an Atomic Defect?.- 12.2 How Do We Characterize Intrinsic Atomic Defects?.- 12.3 How Are Atomic Defects Generated?.- 12.4 Intrinsic Atomic Defects in Thermal Equilibrium.- 12.5 The Influence of Impurities on the Vacancy Concentration in Thermal Equilibrium.- 12.6 Experimental Studies of Thermal-Equilibrium Defects.- 12.6.1 General Remarks.- 12.6.2 Calorimetry.- 12.6.3 Differential Dilatometry.- 12.6.4 Positron Annihilation.- 12.6.5 Spin Rotation of Positive Muons (µ+SR).- 12.7 A Comparison of the Different Techniques.- References.

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