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Materials - Special types of Materials | Ceramic Materials - Science and Engineering

Ceramic Materials

Science and Engineering

Carter, C. Barry, Norton, M. Grant

2nd ed. 2013, XXXIII, 766 p. 778 illus., 660 illus. in color.

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  • Integrates the excitement of new advances in ceramics, including nanotechnology, medicine and clean energy, with fundamental concepts such as structure and defects
  • Explores the environmental and economic impact of ceramics on society
  • Describes the use of ceramics as the basis for many of today’s critical technologies, including drug delivery, orthopedic implants, sensors and catalysis
  • Presents a comprehensive discussion on how today’s ceramics are processed, from nanotubes and thin films to bottles and toilets
  • Offers abundant examples and full-color illustrations relating theory to practical applications
  • Addresses undergraduate and graduate teaching needs and provides a comprehensive reference for all scientists and engineers
  • Written by established and successful teachers and authors with experience in education, research and industry

Ceramic Materials: Science and Engineering is an up-to-date treatment of ceramic science, engineering, and applications in a single, comprehensive text. Building on a foundation of crystal structures, phase equilibria, defects, and the mechanical properties of ceramic materials, students are shown how these materials are processed for a wide diversity of applications in today's society. Concepts such as how and why ions move, how ceramics interact with light and magnetic fields, and how they respond to temperature changes are discussed in the context of their applications. References to the art and history of ceramics are included throughout the text, and a chapter is devoted to ceramics as gemstones. This course-tested text now includes expanded chapters on the role of ceramics in industry and their impact on the environment as well as a chapter devoted to applications of ceramic materials in clean energy technologies. Also new are expanded sets of text-specific homework problems and other resources for instructors. The revised and updated Second Edition is further enhanced with color illustrations throughout the text.

Integrates the excitement of new advances in ceramics, including nanotechnology, medicine and clean energy, with fundamental concepts such as structure and defects

Explores the environmental and economic impact of ceramics on society

Describes the use of ceramics as the basis for many of today’s critical technologies, including drug delivery, orthopedic implants, sensors and catalysis

Presents a comprehensive discussion on how today’s ceramics are processed, from nanotubes and thin films to bottles and toilets

Offers abundant examples and full-color illustrations relating theory to practical applications

Addresses undergraduate and graduate teaching needs and provides a comprehensive reference for all scientists and engineers
Written by established and successful teachers and authors with experience in education, research and industry

Praise for Ceramic Materials:

“The unprecedented completeness of this book makes it a bible on ceramic materials. It is a must read textbook for researchers, graduate students and undergraduate students who are interested in ceramics.” -- Zhong Lin Wang, Regents’ Professor, The Hightower Chair in Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology

“…an outstanding introduction to the subject, clearly written, very detailed, and actually fun and quite easy to read for anyone with some basic scientific background. Each chapter contains several exercises, which this reviewer found to be very helpful. I also found extremely useful the shaded boxes on almost every page with short definitions plus “people in history”. After being exposed to many books on ceramic science during my 40-year career, I finally found a book with which I can restart my ceramic education again.” --Antoni Tomsia, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

“…a valuable resource for the materials science and engineering community, both as a textbook and as a general reference to this important field….recommended reading and a serious study source for anyone interested in ceramics...” --Richard W. Siegel, Director, Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

“The book is just wonderful, and one can only envy what the authors have done! It is the best book I have seen to date. Very clearly written with excellent examples and explanations [as well as] beautiful figures and photographs.” --Professor Safa Kasap, Canada Research Chair in Electronic and Optoelectronic Materials, University of Saskatchewan

“This new book…covers all important topics including history, microstructures, tools, defects, mechanical properties and processing of ceramics for understanding and solving the problems of ceramic science and engineering,...” --Yuichi Ikuhara, The University of Tokyo

“This is a comprehensive text covering, as the title suggests, both the science and engineering of ceramic materials.  What I particularly like about the presentation of the material is it that it is broken down into useful themed sections where related topics are grouped together….This will be a very useful text for MSE undergraduate ceramic courses and for post graduates starting MSc or PhD work and who are new to the field of ceramic materials.” -- Professor John Kilner, BCH Steele Chair in Energy Materials, Department of Materials, Imperial College London

“Ceramic Materials: Science and Engineering is a very thorough book….Its uniqueness lies in the coverage of fundamentals…[as well as] properties and applications…at an unparalleled level, while also providing excellent sections on defects and processing....Carter and Norton’s book is a must have in the ceramics field.” --Juan Claudio Nino, UFRF Professor, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville

“It is no mean task to compete with Kingery et al.'s classic textbook on the subject, but the authors have managed to provide a fresh new perspective on the subject with their unique and student-friendly writing style coupled with spectacular graphics and micrographs…. a truly remarkable text that is bound to become a benchmark in the field.” --N. Ravishankar, Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science

“…an excellent introductory textbook and  basic reference for students and professionals interested in the field of technical ceramics…. There are two aspects which set this book apart from most specialty engineering text books.   First, this book is replete with micrographs, photographs, and diagrams that complement the refreshingly easy-to-read text.   Second, the authors discuss the field of technical ceramics in a societal context that will help novices understand why ceramics are important to our past and future.  In summary, I highly recommend this text.” -- Doreen Edwards, Dean and Professor of Materials Science, Inamori School of Engineering at Alfred University

“As a practitioner of ceramic science and technology over the last twenty five years, I was truly amazed with the easy to understand and quite innovative presentation approach of various contents in the book….This book provides a comprehensive look at various topics from the fundamental aspects of ceramics to the properties required for various applications….. I am sure this book will serve a key reference to students, technology developers, and end users all over the world.”-- Dr. M. Singh, Chief Scientist, Ohio Aerospace Institute, NASA Glenn Research Center

Content Level » Research

Keywords » Ceramic Materials textbook - Ceramic materials history - Introduction to ceramic materials - Principles of Ceramic Processing - ceramic applications - ceramic materials and clean energy technologies - ceramic materials chemistry - ceramic materials conduction - ceramic materials energy production and storage - ceramic materials mechanical strength and weakness - ceramic materials models - ceramic materials processing - ceramic materials properties explained - ceramics applications in biology and medicine - ceramics materials characterization book - complex crystal and glass structures - engineering ceramics book - glasses and glass-ceramics - minerals and gems - sol-gel

Related subjects » Characterization & Evaluation of Materials - Inorganic Chemistry - Mechanics - Nanotechnology - Optical & Electronic Materials - Special types of Materials

Table of contents 

Preface to the First Edition
Preface to the Second Edition

PART I: History and Introduction
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Definitions
1.2 General Properties
1.3 Types of Ceramic and their Applications
1.4 Market
1.5 Critical Issues for the Future
1.6 Relating Microstructure, Processing and Applications
1.7 Safety
1.8 Ceramics on the Internet
1.9 On Units

Chapter 2: Some History
2.1 Earliest Ceramics: the Stone Age
2.2 Ceramics in Ancient Civilizations
2.3 Clay
2.4 Types of Pottery
2.5 Glazes
2.6 Development of a Ceramics Industry
2.7 Plaster and Cement
2.8 Brief History of Glass
2.9 Brief History of Refractories
2.10 Major Landmarks of the 20th Century
2.11 Museums
2.12 Societies
2.13 Ceramic Education

PART II: Materials

Chapter 3: Background You Need to Know
3.1 The Atom
3.2 Energy Levels
3.3 Electron Waves
3.4 Quantum Numbers
3.5 Assigning Quantum Numbers
3.6 Ions
3.7 Electronegativity
3.8 Thermodynamics: the Driving Force for Change
3.9 Kinetics: the Speed of Change

Chapter 4: Bonds and Energy Bands
4.1 Types of Interatomic Bond
4.2 Young’s Modulus
4.3 Ionic Bonding
4.4 Covalent Bonding
4.5 Metallic Bonding in Ceramics
4.6 Mixed Bonding
4.7 Secondary Bonding
4.8 Electron Energy Bands

Chapter 5: Models, Crystals and Chemistry
5.1 Terms and Definitions
5.2 Symmetry and Crystallography
5.3 Lattice Points, Directions and Planes
5.4 The Importance of Crystallography
5.5 Pauling’s Rules
5.6 Close-Packed Arrangements: Interstitial Sites
5.7 Notation for Crystal Structures
5.8 Structure, Composition and Temperature
5.9 Crystals, Glass, Solids and Liquid
5.10 Defects
5.11 Computer Modeling
Chapter 6: Binary Compounds
6.1 Background
6.2 CsCl
6.3 NaCl (MgO, TiC, PbS)
6.4 GaAs (β-SiC)
6.5 AlN (BeO, ZnO)
6.6 CaF2
6.7 FeS2
6.8 Cu2O
6.9 CuO
6.10 TiO2
6.11 Al2O3
6.12 MoS2 and CdI2
6.13 Polymorphs, Polytypes and Polytypoids

Chapter 7: Complex Crystal and Glass Structures
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Spinel
7.3 Perovskite
7.4 The Silicates and Structures Based on SiO4
7.5 Silica
7.6 Olivine
7.7 Garnets
7.8 Ring Silicates
7.9 Micas and Other Layer Materials
7.10 Clay Minerals
7.11 Pyroxene
7.12 β-Aluminas and Related Materials
7.13 Calcium Aluminate and Related Materials
7.14 Mullite
7.15 Monazite
7.16 YBa2Cu3O7 and Related HTSCs
7.17 Si3N4, SiAlONs and Related Materials
7.18 Fullerenes and Nanotubes
7.19 Zeolites and Microporous Compounds
7.20 Zachariasen’s Rules for the Structure of Glass
7.21 Revisiting Glass Structures

Chapter 8: Equilibrium Phase Diagrams
8.1 What’s Special About Ceramics?
8.2 Determining Phase Diagrams
8.3 Phase Diagrams for Ceramists: The Books
8.4 Gibbs Phase Rule
8.5 One Component (C = 1)
8.6 Two Components (C = 2)
8.7 Three and More Components
8.8 Composition with Variable Oxygen Partial Pressure
8.9 Ternary Diagrams and Temperature
8.10 Congruent and Incongruent Melting
8.11 Miscibility Gaps in Glass


Chapter 9: Furnaces
9.1 The Need for High Temperatures
9.2 Types of Furnace
9.3 Combustion Furnaces
9.4 Electrically Heated Furnaces
9.5 Batch or Continuous Operation
9.6 Indirect Heating
9.7 Heating Elements
9.8 Refractories
9.9 Furniture, Tubes and Crucibles
9.10 Firing Process
9.11 Heat Transfer
9.12 Measuring Temperature
9.13 Safety

Chapter 10: Characterizing Structure, Defects and Chemistry
10.1 Characterizing Ceramics
10.2 Imaging using Visible-Light, IR and UV
10.3 Imaging using X-rays and CT scans
10.4 Imaging in the SEM
10.5 Imaging in the TEM
10.6 Scanning-Probe Microscopy
10.7 Scattering and Diffraction Techniques
10.8. Photon Scattering
10.9 Raman and IR Spectroscopy
10.10 NMR Spectroscopy and Spectrometry
10.11 Mössbauer Spectroscopy and Spectrometry
10.12 Diffraction in the EM
10.13 Ion Scattering (RBS)
10.14 X-ray Diffraction and Databases
10.15 Neutron Scattering
10.16 Mass Spectrometry
10.17 Spectrometry in the EM
10.18 Electron Spectroscopy
10.19 Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA)
10.20 Thermal Analysis

PART IV: Defects

Chapter 11: Point Defects, Charge and Diffusion
11.1 Are Defects in Ceramics Different?
11.2 Types of Point Defects
11.3 What is Special for Ceramics?
11.4 What Type of Defects Form? 11.5 Equilibrium Defect Concentrations
11.6 Writing Equations for Point Defects
11.7 Solid Solutions
11.8 Association of Point Defects
11.9 Color Centers
11.10 Creation of Point Defects in Ceramics
11.11 Experimental Studies of Point Defects
11.12 Diffusion
11.13 Diffusion in Impure, or Doped, Ceramics
11.14 Movement of defects
11.15 Diffusion and Ionic Conductivity
11.16 Computing

Chapter 12: Are Dislocations Unimportant?
12.1 A Quick Review of Dislocations
12.2 Summary of Dislocation Properties
12.3 Observation of Dislocations
12.4 Dislocations in Ceramics
12.5 Structure of the Core
12.6 Detailed Geometry
12.7 Defects on Dislocations
12.8 Dislocations and Diffusion
12.9 Movement of Dislocations
12.10 Multiplication of Dislocations
12.11 Dislocation Interactions
12.12 At the Surface
12.13 Indentation, Scratching and Cracks
12.14 Dislocations with Different Cores

Chapter 13: Surfaces, Nanoparticles and Foams
13.1 Background to surfaces
13.2 Ceramic Surfaces
13.3 Surface Energy
13.4 Surface structure
13.5 Curved Surfaces and Pressure
13.6 Capillarity
13.7 Wetting and Dewetting
13.8 Foams
13.9 Epitaxy and Film Growth
13.10 Film Growth in 2D: Nucleation
13.11 Film Growth in 2D: Mechanisms
13.12 Characterizing Surfaces
13.13 Steps
13.14 In situ
13.15 Surfaces and Nano
13.16 Computer modeling
13.17 Introduction to properties

Chapter 14: Interfaces in Polycrystals
14.1 What are Grain Boundaries?
14.2 For Ceramics
14.3 GB Energy
14.4 Low-angle GBs
14.5 High-angle GBs
14.6 Twin Boundaries
14.7 General Boundaries
14.8 GB Films
14.9 Triple Junctions and GB Grooves
14.10 Characterizing GBs
14.11 GBs in Thin Films
14.12 Space Charge and Charged Boundaries
14.13 Modeling
14.14 Some Properties

Chapter 15: Phase Boundaries, Particles and Pores
15.1 The importance
15.2 Different types
15.3 Compare to other materials
15.4 Energy
15.5 The structure of PBs
15.6 Particles
15.7 Use of particles
15.8 Nucleation and growth of particles
15.9 Pores
15.10 Measuring porosity
15.11 Porous ceramics
15.12 Glass/crystal phase boundaries
15.13 Eutectics
15.14 Metal/ceramic PBs
15.15 Forming PBs by joining

PART V: Mechanical Strength and Weakness

Chapter 16: Mechanical Testing
16.1 Philosophy
16.2 Types of testing
16.3 Elastic Constants and Other ‘Constants’
16.4. Effect of Microstructure on Elastic Moduli
16.5. Test Temperature
16.6. Test Environment
16.7 Testing in Compression and Tension
16.8 Three- and Four-point Bending
16.9 KIc from Bend Test
16.10 Indentation
16.11 Fracture Toughness From Indentation
16.12 Nanoindentation
16.13 Ultrasonic Testing
16.14 Design and Statistics
16.15 SPT Diagrams

Chapter 17: Plasticity
17.1 Plastic Deformation
17.2 Dislocation Glide
17.3 Slip in Alumina
17.4 Plastic Deformation in single crystals
17.5 Plastic Deformation in Polycrystals
17.6 Dislocation Velocity and Pinning
17.7 Creep
17.8 Dislocation Creep
17.9 Diffusion-Controlled Creep
17.10 Grain-Boundary Sliding
17.11 Tertiary Creep and Cavitation
17.12 Creep Deformation Maps
17.13 Viscous Flow
17.14 Superplasticity

Chapter 18: Fracturing: Brittleness
18.1 The importance of brittleness
18.2 Theoretical Strength—The Orowan Equation
18.3 The Effect of Flaws—the Griffith Equation
18.4 The Crack Tip—The Inglis Equation
18.5 Stress Intensity Factor
18.6 R Curves
18.7 Fatigue and Stress Corrosion Cracking
18.8 Failure and Fractography
18.9 Toughening and Ceramic Matrix Composites
18.10 Machinable Glass-Ceramics
18.11 Wear
18.12 Grinding and polishing

PART VI: Processing

Chapter 19: Raw Materials
19.1 Geology, Minerals, and Ores
19.2 Mineral Formation
19.3 Beneficiation
19.4 Weights and Measures19.5 Silica
19.6 Silicates
19.7 Oxides
19.8 Non Oxides

Chapter 20: Powders, Fibers, Platelets and Composites
20.1 Making Powders
20.2. Types of powders
20.3 Mechanical Milling
20.4 Spray Drying
20.5 Powders by Sol-gel Processing
20.6 Powders by Precipitation
20.7 Chemical Routes to Non-oxide powders
20.8 Platelets
20.9 Nanopowders by Vapor-Phase reactions
20.10 Characterizing Powders
20.11 Characterizing Powders by Microscopy
20.12 Sieving20.13 Sedimentation
20.14 The Coulter counter
20.15 Characterizing Powders by Light Scattering
20.16 Characterizing Powders by X-Ray Diffraction
20.17 Measuring Surface Area (The BET method)
20.18 Determining Particle composition and purity
20.19 Making Fibers and whiskers
20.20 Oxide fibers
20.21 Whiskers
20.22 Glass fibers
20.23 Coating Fibers
20.24 Making CMCs
20.25 CMCs From Powders and slurries
20.26 CMCs By Infiltration
20.27 In-situ processes

Chapter 21: Glass and Glass-Ceramics
21.1 Definitions
21.2 History
21.3 Viscosity, η
21.4 Glass—A Summary of its Properties, or not
21.5 Defects in Glass
21.6 Heterogeneous Glass
21.7 YA glass
21.8 Coloring Glass
21.9 Glass laser
21.10 Precipitates in Glass
21.11 Crystallizing Glass
21.12 Glass as Glaze and Enamel
21.13 Corrosion of Glass and Glaze
21.14 Types of Ceramic Glasses
21.15 Natural glass
21.16 The Physics of Glass

Chapter 22: Sols, Gels and Organic Chemistry
22.1 Sol-gel processing
22.2 Structure and synthesis of alkoxides
22.3 Properties of alkoxides22.4 The sol-gel process using metal alkoxides
22.5 Characterization of the sol-gel Process
22.6 Powders, coatings, fibers, crystalline or glass?

Chapter 23: Shaping and Forming
23.1 The Words
23.2 Binders and Plasticizers
23.3 Slip and Slurry
23.4 Dry Pressing
23.5 Hot Pressing
23.6 Cold Isostatic Pressing
23.7 Hot Isostatic Pressing
23.8 Slip Casting
23.9 Extrusion
23.10 Injection molding
23.11 Rapid prototyping
23.12 Green machining
23.13 Binder burnout
23.14 Final machining
23.15 Making Porous Ceramics
23.16 Shaping Pottery
23.17 Shaping Glass

Chapter 24: Sintering and Grain Growth
24.1 The sintering process
24.2 The terminology of sintering24.3 Capillary forces and Surface Forces
24.4 Sintering spheres and wires
24.5 Grain growth
24.6 Sintering and Diffusion
24.7 LPS
24.8 Hot pressing
24.9 Pinning Grain Boundaries
24.10 Grain Growth
24.11 Grain boundaries, surfaces and sintering
24.12 Exaggerated grain growth
24.13 Fabricating complex shapes
24.14 Pottery
24.15 Pores and Porous Ceramics
24.16 Sintering with 2- and 3-phases
24.17 Examples of sintering in action
24.18 Computer Modeling

Chapter 25: Solid-State Phase Transformations & Reactions
25.1 Transformations & reactions: The link
25.2 The Terminology
25.3 Technology
25.4 Phase transformations without changing chemistry
25.5 Phase transformations changing chemistry
25.6 Methods for studying kinetics
25.7 Diffusion through a layer: slip casting
25.8 Diffusion through a layer: solid-state reactions
25.9 The spinel-forming reaction
25.10 Inert markers and reaction barriers
25.11 Simplified Darken equation
25.12 The incubation period
25.13 Particle growth and the effect of misfit
25.14 Thin-film reactions
25.15 Reactions in an electric field
25.16 Phase transformations involving glass
25.17 Pottery
25.18 Cement
25.19 Reactions involving a gas phase
25.20 Curved interfaces

Chapter 26: Processing Glass and Glass-Ceramics
26.1 The Market for Glass and Glass Products
26.2 Processing Bulk Glasses
26.3 Bubbles
26.4 Flat Glass
26.5 Float-Glass
26.6 Glass Blowing
26.7 Coating Glass
26.8 Safety Glass
26.9 Foam Glass
26.10 Sealing glass
26.11 Enamel
26.12 Photochromic Glass
26.13 Ceramming: Changing Glass to Glass-Ceramics
26.14 Glass for Art and Sculpture
26.15 Glass for Science and Engineering

Chapter 27: Coatings and Thick Films
Chapter 27: Coatings and Thick Films27.1 Defining Thick Film
27.2 Tape Casting
27.3 Dip Coating
27.4 Spin Coating
27.5 Spraying
27.6 Electrophoretic Deposition
27.7 Thick Film Circuits

Chapter 28: Thin Films and Vapor Deposition
28. 1 The Difference Between Thin Films and Thick Films
28.2 Acronyms, Adjectives and Hyphens
28.3 Requirements for Thin Ceramic Films
28.4 CVD
28.5. Thermodynamics of CVD
28.6 CVD of Ceramic Films for Semiconductor Devices
28.7 Types of CVD
28.8 CVD Safety
28.9 Evaporation
28.10 Sputtering
28.11 Molecular-beam Epitaxy
28.12 Pulsed-laser Deposition
28.13 Ion-beam-assisted Deposition
28.14 Substrates

Chapter 29: Growing Single Crystals
29.1 Why Single Crystals?
29.2 A Brief History of Growing Ceramic Single Crystals
29.3 Methods for Growing Single Crystals of Ceramics
29.4 Melt Technique: Verneuil (Flame-Fusion)
29.5 Melt Technique: Arc-image Growth
29.6 Melt Technique: Czochralski
29.7 Melt Technique: Skull Melting
29.8 Melt Technique: Bridgman-Stockbarger
29.9 Melt Technique: HEM
29.10 Applying Phase Diagrams to Single-crystal Growth
29.11 Solution Technique: Hydrothermal
29.12 Solution Technique: Hydrothermal Growth at Low T
29.13 Solution Technique: Flux Growth
29.14 Solution Technique: Growing Diamonds
29.15 Vapor Technique: VLS
29.16 Vapor Technique: Sublimation
29.17 Preparing Substrates for Thin-film Applications
29.18 Growing Nanowires and Nanotubes by VLS and not

PART VII: Properties and Applications

Chapter 30: Conducting Charge or not
30.1 Ceramics as electrical conductors
30.2 Conduction mechanisms in ceramics
30.3 Number of conduction electrons
30.4 Electron mobility
30.5 Effect of temperature
30.6 Ceramics with metal-like conductivity
30.7 Applications for high-s ceramics
30.8 Semiconducting ceramics
30.9 Examples of extrinsic semiconductors
30.10 Varistors
30.11 Thermistors
30.12 Wide-band-gap semiconductors
30.13 Ion conduction
30.14 Fast ion conductors
30.15 Batteries
30.16 Fuel cells
30.17 Ceramic insulators
30.18 Substrates and packages for integrated circuits
30.19 Insulating layers in integrated circuits
30.20 Superconductivity
30.21 Ceramic superconductors

Chapter 31: Locally Redistributing Charge
31.1 Background on Dielectrics
31.2 Ferroelectricity
31.3 BaTiO3 – The Prototypical Ferroelectric
31.4 Solid Solutions with BaTiO3
31.5 Other Ferroelectric Ceramics
31.6 Relaxor Dielectrics
31.7 Ceramic Capacitors
31.8 Ceramic Ferroelectrics for Memory Applications
31.9 Piezoelectricity
31.10 Lead Zirconate-Lead Titanate (PZT) Solid Solutions
31.11 Applications for Piezoelectric Ceramics
31.12 Piezoelectric Materials for MEMS
31.13 Pyroelectricity
31.14 Applications for Pyroelectric Ceramics

Chapter 32: Interacting with & Generating Light
32.1 Some background for optical ceramics
32.2 Transparency
32.3 The Refractive Index
32.4 Reflection from Ceramic Surfaces
32.5 Color in Ceramics
32.6 Coloring Glass and Glazes
32.7 Ceramic Pigments and Stains
32.8 Translucent Ceramics
32.9 Lamp Envelopes
32.10 Fluorescence
32.11 The Basics of Optical Fibers
32.12 Phosphors and Emitters
32.13 Solid-State Lasers
32.14 Electro-Optic Ceramics for Optical Devices
32.15 Reacting to Other Parts of the Spectrum
32.16 Optical Ceramics in Nature
32.17. Quantum Dots and Size Effects
Chapter 33: Using Magnetic Fields & Storing Data
33.1 A Brief History of Magnetic Ceramics
33.2 Magnetic Dipoles
33.3 The Basic Equations, the Words and the Units
33.4 The Five Classes of Magnetic Material
33.5 Diamagnetic Ceramics33.6. Superconducting Magnets
33.7. Paramagnetic Ceramics
33.8 Measuring χ
33.9 Ferromagnetism
33.10 Antiferromagnetism and CMR
33.11 Ferrimagnetism
33.12 Estimating the Magnetization of Ferrimagnets
33.13 Magnetic Domains and Bloch Walls
33.14 Imaging Magnetic Domains
33.15 Motion of Domain Walls and Hysteresis Loops
33.16 Hard and Soft Ferrites
33.17 Microwave Ferrites
33.18 Data Storage and Recording
33.19. Magnetic Nanoparticles

Chapter 34: Responding to Temperature Changes
34.1 Summary of Terms and Units
34.2 Absorption and Heat Capacity
34.3. Melting
34.4 Vaporization
34.5. Thermal Conductivity
34.6 Measuring Thermal Conductivity
34.7 Microstructure and Thermal Conductivity
34.8 Using High Thermal Conductivity
34.9 Thermal Expansion
34.10 Effect of Crystal Structure on α
34.11 Thermal Expansion Measurement
34.12 Importance of Matching αs
34.13 Applications for Low-α
34.14 Thermal Shock

Chapter 35: Ceramics in Biology & Medicine
35.1 What are Bioceramics?
35.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Ceramics
35.3 Ceramic Implants & The Structure of Bone
35.4 Alumina and Zirconia
35.5 Bioactive Glasses
35.6 Bioactive Glass-ceramics
35.7 Hydroxyapatite
35.8 Bioceramics in Composites
35.9 Bioceramic Coatings
35.10 Radiotherapy Glasses
35.11 Pyrolytic Carbon Heart Valves
35.12 Nanobioceramics
35.13 Dental Ceramics
35.14 Biomimetics

Chapter 36: Minerals & Gems
36.1 Minerals
36.2 What is a gem?
36.3 In the rough
36.4 Cutting and polishing
36.5 Light and Optics in Gemology
36.6 Color in gems and minerals
36.7 Optical Effects
36.8 Identifying Minerals & Gems
36.9 Chemical Stability (durability)
36.10 Diamonds, Sapphires, Rubies and Emeralds
36.11 Opal
36.12 Other Gems
36.13 Minerals with Inclusions
36.14 Treatment of Gems
36.15 The Mineral & Gem Trade

Chapter 37: Energy Production and Storage
37.1 Some reminders
37.2 Nuclear Fuel and Waste Disposal
37.3 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
37.4 Photovoltaic Solar Cells
37.5 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
37.6 Ceramics in Batteries
37.7 Lithium-Ion Batteries
37.8 Ultracapacitors
37.9 Producing and Storing Hydrogen
37.10 Energy Harvesting
37.11 Catalysts and Catalyst Supports

Chapter 38: Industry and the Environment
38.1 The beginning of the modern ceramics industry
38.2 Growth and globalization
38.3 Types of market
38.4 Case studies
38.5 Emerging Areas
38.6 Mining
38.7 Recycling
38.8 As Green Materials


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