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Materials - Optical & Electronic Materials | Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics - incl. option to publish open access (Societies)

Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics

Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics

Editor: Arthur F. W. Willoughby

ISSN: 0957-4522 (print version)
ISSN: 1573-482X (electronic version)

Journal no. 10854

Virtual Special Issue: Lead Free Solder and Packaging

Arthur Willoughby has personally curated this Virtual Special Issue focused on lead free solder, with papers selected from among the most recent in the journal.

Effect of intermetallic compounds on fracture behaviors of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu lead-free solder joints during in situ tensile test  

Yanhong Tian, Wei Liu, Rong An, Wei Zhang, Lina Niu and Chunqing Wang

...The fracture behaviors of solder joints were significantly affected by morphologies and distributions of the Cu6Sn5 IMCs. It was found that Cu6Sn5 particles located at the grain boundaries are apt to become crack sources, and that the long rod shaped Cu6Sn5 were easily broken. However, spherical Cu6Sn5 hardly deformed during the tensile test, resulting in dynamic recrystallization...

Suppression of interfacial intermetallic compounds between Sn–9Zn solder and Cu-substrate by adding Cu-particles in the solder  

G. Q. Wei and Y. L. Huang

...It is approved that the Cu-particles dispersion in the solder can effectively suppress the growth rate of the intermetallic compounds at the solder/Cu-substrate interface compared with that without adding Cu-particles...

Die attach properties of Zn–Al–Mg–Ga based high-temperature lead-free solder on Cu lead-frame  

A. Haque, B. H. Lim, A. S. M. A. Haseeb and H. H. Masjuki

...In this study, Zn–Al–Mg–Ga solder wire was used to attach Ti/Ni/Ag metallized Si die on Cu lead-frame in an automatic die attach machine. Die attachment was performed in a forming gas environment at temperature ranging from 370 to 400 °C. At the interface with Cu lead-frame, CuZn4, Cu5Zn8 and CuZn intermetallic compound (IMC) layers were formed. At the interface with Si, Al3Ni2 IMC formed when 200 nm Ag layer was used at the die back and AgZn and AgZn3 IMC layers when the Ag layer was 2,000 nm thick. Microstructure of the bulk solder consists of mainly two phases: one with a brighter contrast (about 80.9 wt% Zn) and the other one is a mixture of light (about 73.7 wt% Zn) and dark phases (about 45 wt% Al). Zn–Al–Mg–Ga solder wetted well on Cu lead-frame, covered entire die area and flowed in all directions under the Si die. Less than 10% voids were found in the die attach samples at die attach temperatures of 380 and 390 °C. Die shear strength was found within the acceptable limit (21.8–29.4 MPa) for all the die attach temperatures. Die shear strength of standard Pb–Sn solder was also measured for comparison and was found to be 29.3 MPa. In electrical test, maximum deviation of output voltage after 1,000 thermal cycles was found 12.1%.

Relation between Kirkendall voids and intermetallic compound layers in the SnAg/Cu solder joints  

Chun Yu, Yang Yang, Kaiyun Wang, Jijin Xu, Junmei Chen and Hao Lu

...The results show that a considerable amount of KVs were observed at the Cu3Sn/Cu interface in the Sn-3.5Ag/Cu joint after isothermal aging. A proper amount of Zn (0.5 wt%) and Ge (0.1 and 0.3 wt%) were found to effectively suppress the formation of the Cu3Sn layer, and no obvious KVs were observed at the Cu6Sn5/Cu interface, while more Zn induced the formation of the Cu6Sn5 plus Cu–Zn mixed IMC layer, and voids (not KVs) were observed at the Cu6Sn5/Cu–Zn interface. (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 IMC layer replaced the initial Cu6Sn5 at the SnAg-Ni/Cu joints, likewise, the Cu3Sn was suppressed at the thermal aging stage. Moreover, voids were found at the IMC/solder interface, while not at the IMC/Cu. Therefore, the formation of KVs is greatly determined by the characteristic of the IMC layer, this is consistent with the previous reports. On other hand, the KV can be suppressed by controlling the interfacial phase through adding trace elements into the solder.

The morphology and kinetic evolution of intermetallic compounds at Sn–Ag–Cu solder/Cu and Sn–Ag–Cu-0.5Al2O3 composite solder/Cu interface during soldering reaction  

S. Y. Chang, L. C. Tsao, M. W. Wu and C. W. Chen

...Experimental results showed that IMC could be dramatically affected by a small amount of intermixing 0.5 wt% Al2O3 nanoparticles into Sn3.0Ag0.7Cu solder. A continuous elongated scallop-shaped overall IMC layer was found at SAC/Cu interfaces. However, after the addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles, a discontinuous rounded scallop-shaped overall IMC layer appeared at SAC-0.5Al2O3/Cu interfaces. Kinetics analyses showed that growth of the overall IMC layer in SAC/Cu and SAC-0.5Al2O3/Cu soldering was diffusion controlled. The activation energies calculated for the overall IMC layer were 44.2 kJ/mol of SAC/Cu and 59.3 kJ/mol for SAC-0.5Al2O3/Cu soldering, respectively. This indicates that the presence of a small amount of Al2O3 nanoparticles is effective in suppressing the growth of the overall IMC layer.

Influence of silver additions on electrical, mechanical and structures properties of rapidly solidified Sn–0.7%Cu alloy from melt  

Samia E. Negm

...Melting point, electrical resistivity, internal friction, elastic moduli, microhardness and the microstructure of the Sn99.3Cu0.7, Sn95.8Cu0.7Ag3.5 and Sn95.3Cu0.7Ag4 rapidly solidified lead free solder alloys have been investigated. The examined physical properties are improved by increasing silver contents in the studied lead free solder alloys...

Effects of addition of copper particles of different size to Sn-3.5Ag solder  

Aemi Nadia and A. S. M. A. Haseeb

...It was reported that the lowest melting point was obtained at 216.3°C when Cu nanoparticles was added at 3% to Sn-3.5Ag. The microstructure of Sn-3.5Ag solder structure was dendritic in nature. With the addition of Cu nanoparticles, the microstructures were modified with more refined Sn structures. The existence of sunflower morphology of un-melted copper was observed when Cu microparticles were added.

Nanoparticles of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu alloy synthesized at room temperature with large melting temperature depression  

Changdong Zou, Yulai Gao, Bin Yang and Qijie Zhai

...The results showed that the calorimetric onset melting temperature of the Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu alloy nanoparticles could be as low as 200 °C, which was about 17 °C lower than that of the bulk alloy (217 °C). The field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the as-prepared nanoparticles indicated that the major particle size of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu nanoparticles is smaller than 50 nm. The structure and morphology of the nanoparticles were analyzed with high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The Ag3Sn and Sn phase were observed in the HRTEM images, which was in good agreement with the XRD results. These low melting temperature Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu alloy nanoparticles show a potential to manufacture high quality lead-free solders for electronic products.

Effect of Ti on the interfacial reaction between Sn and Cu  

V. Vuorinen, H. Q. Dong and T. Laurila

...Based on the experimental results the following statements about the effect of Ti can be made: Firstly, the presence of Ti does not have measurable effect on the thickness of either Cu6Sn5 or Cu3Sn during solid state annealing. However, the unevenness of both Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn layers is increased by the addition of Ti. Secondly, there is no marked solubility of Ti to either Cu6Sn5 or Cu3Sn. Rather Ti reacts with Sn to form large Ti2Sn3 platelets inside the solder matrix...

The effects of temperature gradient and growth rate on the microstructure of directionally solidified Sn–3.5Ag eutectic solder  

Mevlüt Şahin and Emin Çadirli

...The Sn–3.5 wt% Ag eutectic alloy was directionally solidified upward with a constant growth rate, V (16.5 μm/s) at different temperature gradients, G (1.43–4.28 K/mm) and with a constant temperature gradient, G (3.93 K/mm) at different growth rates, V (8.3–500 μm/s) in a Bridgman–type directional solidification furnace. The rod spacings (λ) have been measured from both longitudinal section (parallel to the growth direction, λ L ) and transverse section (perpendicular to the growth direction, λ T ) of the samples. The undercooling values (ΔT) were calculated by using V, λ and system parameters (K 1 and K 2). It was found that the values of λ (λ T , λ L ) decrease while V and G are increasing...

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    Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics is an established refereed companion to the Journal of Materials Science. It publishes papers on materials and their applications in modern electronics covering the ground between the fundamental science, such as semiconductor physics, and work concerned solely with applications. It features not only the growth and preparation of new materials, but also their processing, fabrication, bonding and encapsulation, together with the reliability, failure analysis, quality assurance and characterisation related to the whole range of applications in electronics. The Journal encourages papers in newly developing fields such as low dimensional structures and devices, optoelectronics including III-V compounds, glasses and linear/non-linear crystal materials and lasers, high Tc superconductors, conducting polymers, thick film materials and new contact technologies, as well as the established electronics device and circuit materials. New preparation methods such as molecular beam epitaxy, MOMBE, chemical vapour deposition techniques and bulk crystal growth are covered, while all aspects of the technology and fabrication of semiconductor devices and circuits, together with their assessment and reliability, are included. Papers on materials used in more conventional applications such as resistors, inductors, conductors, capacitors, power semiconductor devices, dielectrics, ferroelectrics, insulators and magnetic applications are equally encouraged.
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