Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2002, XII, 212 p.
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This book introduces the basics of a new class of materials, expected to have wide-ranging applications in future, with important economic consequences
This book is devoted to a nontraditional class of materials which are manufactured by the melt-blowing process - i.e. by extrusion of polymer melt followed by fiber stretching with a gas stream. For the first time extensive data on classical and modern modifications of this technology are generalized and a review is given of extrusion head dies and subsidiary equipment. The text examines the structure and main properties of melt-blown materials as conditioned by peculiarities of overheated polymer melt spraying in oxidizing medium. Information is given about filtering mechanisms and the main types of polymer fibrous filtering materials: electret, magnetic, adsorptional, bactericidic and about carriers of microorganisms in biofilters. Social and ecological aspects of the application of melt-blown materials are analyzed.
1. Introduction (Historical Review).- 2. Melt Blowing Techniques.- 2.1 Main Technological Procedures.- 2.2 Modern Trends in Melt mowing Techniques.- 3. Equipment.- 3.1 Spray Heads.- 3.1.1 Basic Designs.- 3.1.2 Modified Heads.- 3.2 Auxiliary Equipment.- 4. Structure of Melt-Blown Polymer Fibrous Materials (PFM).- 4.1 Major Structural Parameters.- 4.2 Effect of Different Technological Regimes on PFM Structure.- 5. Specific Properties of Melt-Blown PFM.- 5.1 Physicochemical Characteristics.- 5.2 Electret Charge in Melt-Blown Materials.- 6. Fibrous Materials in Filtration Systems.- 6.1 Efficiency of Filtration Systems.- 6.2 Filtration Mechanisms.- 6.2.1 Mechanisms of Particle Precipitation.- 6.2.2 Surface and Depth Filtration.- 6.2.3 Electrostatic Precipitation.- 6.2.4 Precipitation and Coagulation in a Magnetic Field.- 7. Electret Filtering PFM.- 7.1 Mechanism of PFM Polarization.- 7.2 Capillary Phenomena.- 7.3 Production Process and Properties of Electret PFM.- 7.4 Applications.- 8. Magnetic Filtering PFM.- 8.1 Backgro.- 8.2 Simulation of Magnetic Deposition in PFM.- 8.3 Theory versus Experiment.- 8.4 Magnetization of PFM.- 8.5 Magnetic Coagulation of Particles in PFM.- 8.6 Magnetic Capillary Phenomena.- 8.7 Serviceability of Magnetic PFM-Based Filters.- 9. Adsorptive and Microbicidal PFM.- 9.1 PFM Modified by Porous Adsorbents.- 9.2 PFM as Adsorbents of Oil Product8.- 9.3 Complex-Forming PFM.- 9.4 Adsorptive-Microbicidal PFM.- 10. PFM as Carriers of Microorganisms.- 10.1 Biofilters with Polymer Fibrous Biomass Carriers.- 10.2 Effect of Magnetic Fields on the Growth Proce8ses of Microorganisms.- 11. Other Applications of PFM.- 11.1 Household Uses.- 11.2 Industry.- 11.3 Construction.- 11.4 Medicine.- 11.5 Packing.- 11.6 Protection of Products and Environment.- 12. Ecological and Social Problems.- 12.1 Solution of Ecological Problems.- 12.1.1 Purification of Indu8trial Gases.- 12.1.2 Wa8tewatcr Purification.- 12.1.3 Melioration.- 12.1.4 Oil and Chemical Sorbents.- 12.2 Regeneration, Utilization, and Burial.- 12.3 Economic Estimates.- 13. Conclusion.- References.