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Ion implantation offers one of the best examples of a topic that starting from the basic research level has reached the high technology level within the framework of microelectronics. As the major or the unique procedure to selectively dope semiconductor materials for device fabrication, ion implantation takes advantage of the tremendous development of microelectronics and it evolves in a multidisciplinary frame. Physicists, chemists, materials sci entists, processing, device production, device design and ion beam engineers are all involved in this subject. The present monography deals with several aspects of ion implantation. The first chapter covers basic information on the physics of devices together with a brief description of the main trends in the field. The second chapter is devoted to ion im planters, including also high energy apparatus and a description of wafer charging and contaminants. Yield is a quite relevant is sue in the industrial surrounding and must be also discussed in the academic ambient. The slowing down of ions is treated in the third chapter both analytically and by numerical simulation meth ods. Channeling implants are described in some details in view of their relevance at the zero degree implants and of the available industrial parallel beam systems. Damage and its annealing are the key processes in ion implantation. Chapter four and five are dedicated to this extremely important subject.
Preface. List of Tables. 1. Semiconductor Devices. 2. Ion Implanters. 3. Range Distribution. 4. Radiation Damage. 5. Annealing and Secondary Defects. 6. Analytical Techniques. 7. Silicon Based Devices. 8. Ion Implantation in Compound Semiconductor and Buried Layer Synthesis. Selected References. References. Index.