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Press, Gordon & Breach Science Publishers, Inc. , and lOP Publishing Ltd. The author's original work in this book was supported by the National Science Foundation and the Office of Naval Research. Buffalo, NY A. Isihara July 1992 Preface The study of electronic properties reveals a common basis for a variety of systems, including gaseous plasmas, ionic solutions, metals, and semiconduc tors. This study started with one-electron properties in free space, as discussed in solid-state books. However, significant progress has been made recently in more realistic and complicated cases with interactions, confinements, im purities, and fields. Moreover, the recent discoveries of the quantum Hall ef fect, high-Tc superconductors, and localization phenomena, along with the in troduction of low-dimensional materials have opened new areas and have led to a tremendous number of articles in existing journals and even new specialized journals. This book has been written to provide a new, comprehen sive review on electronic properties in such diverse areas and materials. The title indicates emphasis on electron correlations. Chapter 1 starts with an introductory description of electron systems, including classification, characterization, and models. It provides the reader with a general account of the amazingly diverse electron systems. It is followed by discussions on strong ly coupled gaseous plasmas, electron-hole liquids, magnetic response, low dimensional systems, heavy Fermions, high-Tc superconductivity, localization, and the quantum Hall effect.
Content Level »Research
Keywords »Plasma physics - electronic transport - interfaces and thin films - magnetic properties - superconductivity - surfaces
1. General Description of Electron Systems.- 1.1 Classification of Electron Systems.- 1.2 Low-Dimensional Electron Systems.- 1.2.1 Two-Dimensional Electron Systems.- 1.2.2 One-Dimensional Electron Systems.- 1.3 Characteristic Lengths.- 1.4 Fermi Liquid Theory.- 1.5 Tight Binding, Anderson and Hubbard Models.- 2. Dielectric Function.- 2.1 RPA Dielectric Function.- 2.2 Beyond the RPA.- 2.2.1 Monte Carlo Calculations.- 2.2.2 Hubbard’s Attempt.- 2.2.3 Phenomenological Consideration of ?(q, ?).- 2.2.4 Self-Consistent Approach.- 2.2.5 Excess Energy.- 2.3 Plasmon Dispersion.- 3. One-Component Plasmas at High Temperatures.- 3.1 ? and ? Series.- 3.2 Quantum Effects at High Temperatures.- 3.3 Short-Distance Correlations.- 4. Low Temperature Plasmas.- 4.1 Asymptotic Correlations.- 4.1.1 Long-Distance Correlations and the Effect of Impurities.- 4.1.2 Ladder Diagram Contribution.- 4.2 Correlation Energy in Three Dimensions.- 4.2.1 Ideal Gas Contribution.- 4.2.2 First-Order Exchange Contribution.- 4.2.3 Ring Diagram Contribution.- 4.2.4 Direct Calculation of the Ring Energy.- 4.2.5 Second-Order Exchange Contribution.- 4.2.6 Correlation Energy.- 4.3 Correlation Energy of 2D Electrons.- 5. Electron—Hole Liquids.- 5.1 Excitons.- 5.2 Phase Diagram.- 5.3 2D Electron—Hole Plasma.- 6. Correlation in a Magnetic Field.- 6.1 Spatial Correlation in a Magnetic Field.- 6.2 Magnetic Response in Three Dimensions.- 6.2.1 Exchange Effect at High Temperatures.- 6.2.2 Ideal Electron Gas at Low Temperatures.- 6.2.3 Exchange Effects at Low Temperatures.- 6.2.4 Correlation Effects.- 6.2.5 Local Field Correction.- 6.3 Effective g-Factor in Si Inversion Layers.- 6.4 Coulomb Effects on 2D de Haas—van Alphen Oscillations.- 6.4.1 Chemical Potential.- 6.4.2 Exchange Effect.- 6.4.3 Correlation Contribution.- 6.4.4 de Haas—van Alphen Oscillations.- 6.5 Field Induced SDW States of 1D Conductors.- 7. Electronic Specific Heat.- 7.1 Correlation Effects.- 7.1.1 Lidiard Approximation.- 7.1.2 Exchange and Correlation Effects.- 7.1.3 Specific Heat of 2D Electrons.- 7.2 Magnetothermal Effect in Two Dimensions.- 7.3 Heavy Fermions.- 8. Magnetoconductivity in Two Dimensions.- 8.1 Magnetoconductivity of 2D Electrons.- 8.2 Memory Function Formalism.- 8.3 Anomalous Cyclotron Resonance.- 9. Localization.- 9.1 Anderson Localization and Scaling.- 9.2 Weak Localization.- 9.2.1 Interference Effect.- 9.2.2 Magnetic Field Effects.- 9.3 Interaction Effect.- 10. Hopping, Percolation and Conductance Fluctuations.- 10.1 Hopping and Percolation.- 10.2 Universal Conductance Fluctuations in 1D Systems.- 10.3 Conductance of TTF/TCNQ.- 11. High Tc Superconductivity.- 11.1 Electron Pairing in BCS Theory.- 11.2 Properties of High Tc Superconductors.- 11.2.1 2-1-4 Compounds.- 11.2.2 1-2-3 Compounds.- 11.2.3 Copperless Oxides.- 11.2.4 Characteristic Properties.- 11.3 Theoretical Consideration.- 12. Integral Quantum Hall Effect.- 12.1 Quantization of Hall Conductivity of 2D Electrons.- 12.2 Localization and Scaling.- 12.3 Theoretical Interpretation.- 13. Fractional Quantum Hall Effect.- 13.1 Experimental Results.- 13.2 Ground State of the FQHE.- 13.3 Elementary Excitations and Off-Diagonal Long Range Order.- A.1 Pair Distribution Function.- A.2 Classical and Quantum Chains.- A.3 Ring Diagram Formulas.- A.4 Density Functional Approach.- References.