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Materials | Graphite Intercalation Compounds II - Transport and Electronic Properties

Graphite Intercalation Compounds II

Transport and Electronic Properties

Zabel, Hartmut, Solin, Stuart A. (Eds.)

Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1992, XIV, 433 pp. 216 figs.

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  • About this textbook

The research on graphite intercalation compounds often acts as a forerunner for research in other sciences. For instance, the concept of staging, which is fundamental to graphite intercalation compounds, is also relevant to surface science in connection with adsorbates on metal surfaces and to high-temperature superconducting oxide layer materials. Phonon-folding and mode-splitting effects are not only basic to graphite intercalation compounds but also to polytypical systems such as supercon­ ductors, superlattices, and metal and semiconductor superlattices. Charge transfer effects playa tremendously important role in many areas, and they can be most easily and fundamentally studied with intercalated graphite. This list could be augmented with many more examples. The important message, however, is that graphite inter­ calation compounds represent a class of materials that not only can be used for testing a variety of condensed-matter concepts, but also stimulates new ideas and approaches. This volume is the second of a two-volume set. The first volume addressed the structural and dynamical aspects of graphite intercalation compounds, together with the chemistry and intercalation of new compounds. This second volume provides an up-to-date status report from expert researchers on the transport, magnetic, elec­ tronic and optical properties ofthis unique class of materials. The band-structure cal­ culations of the various donor and acceptor compounds are discussed in depth, and detailed reviews are provided ofthe experimental verification ofthe electronic struc­ ture in terms of their photoemission spectra and optical properties.

Content Level » Research

Keywords » Phase Transition - Phase Transitions - band structure - graphite intercalation compounds - magnetic properties - optical properties - physics - science - superconductivity - transport

Related subjects » Condensed Matter Physics - Engineering - Inorganic Chemistry - Materials - Optics & Lasers - Physical Chemistry

Table of contents 

1. Introduction.- References.- 2. Electronic Band Structure of Graphite Intercalation Compounds.- 2.1 Methods for Band Structure Calculations.- 2.2 Graphite.- 2.2.1 General Features.- 2.2.2 Electronic Band Structure.- 2.3 Electronic Band Structures of Low-Stage Graphite Intercalation Compounds.- 2.3.1 General Features.- 2.3.2 Lithium Graphite Intercalation Compounds.- 2.3.3 Alkali and Alkaline Earth-Metal Graphite Intercalation Compounds.- 2.3.4 Ternary Graphite Intercalation Compounds.- 2.4 Electronic Band Structure of High-Stage Graphite Intercalation Compounds.- 2.4.1 General Features.- 2.4.2 First-Principles Calculations.- 2.4.3 Parametrized Models.- 2.5 Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 3. Electron Spectroscopy of Graphite Intercalation Compounds.- 3.1 Essential Concepts.- 3.1.1 Pure Graphite as a Host for Intercalation.- 3.1.2 The Charge Transfer Problem.- 3.1.3 Concepts of Charge Transfer.- 3.2 The Situation in the Literature.- 3.2.1 Charge Transfer in Theories of KC8.- 3.2.2 The Charge Transfer Problem in Spectroscopic Experiments.- (a) Soft X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy (SXS).- (b) Photoelectron Spectroscopy.- (c) Valence Band Spectroscopy.- (d) Angle-Resolved UPS.- (e) Core-Level Spectroscopy.- 3.3 Principal Results for the Electronic Structure.- 3.3.1 The Typical Photoelectron Spectrum.- 3.3.2 Fermi-Level Shift — UPS Results.- 3.3.3 Lineshape of Core-Level Spectra.- 3.3.4 Shifts in Core-Level Spectra of GICs.- 3.4 Photoemission from Acceptor GICs.- 3.4.1 Experimental Details.- 3.4.2 Surface Halogenation.- 3.4.3 Valence-Band Information.- 3.5 Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 4. Effects of Charge Transfer on the Optical Properties of Graphite Intercalation Compounds.- 4.1 Experimental Considerations.- 4.1.1 Optical Measurement of Air-Sensitive Compounds.- 4.1.2 Optical Reflectance Spectroscopy.- 4.1.3 Raman Spectroscopy.- 4.2 Deducing Charge Transfer from Optical Studies.- 4.2.1 The Relationship Between the Optical Reflectance, Dielectric Function, and Electronic Band Structure of GICs.- 4.2.2 Electronic Band Structure Models.- (a) The K-Point Tight-Binding Model of Blinowski and Rigaux.- (b) LCAO Model of Holzwarth.- (c) Tight-Binding Model of Saito and Kamimura.- 4.2.3 Charge Transfer and Graphitic Intralayer Phonon Frequencies.- 4.3 Experimental Results and Discussion.- 4.3.1 Donor-Type GICs.- (a) Potassium GICs.- (b) Potassium-Hydrogen GICs.- (c) Potassium-NH3 and Potassium-THF GICs.- (d) Cesium-Bismuth and Potassium-Mercury GICs.- 4.3.2 Acceptor-Type GICs.- (a) Sulfuric Acid GICs.- (b) Metal-Chloride GICs.- (c) Fluorine and Metal-Fluoride GICs.- 4.4 Summary and Conclusion.- References.- 5. Superconductivity of Graphite Intercalation Compounds.- 5.1 Superconductivity of C8M (M= K, Rb, Cs).- 5.2 Superconductivity of Binary Intercalants.- 5.2.1 Superconductivity of Potassium Hydride GICs, C4nKH.- 5.2.2 Superconductivity of GICs of Alkali-Metal Amalgams, C4nMHg.- 5.2.3 Superconductivity of Alkali-Metal Thallide and Bismuthide GICs.- 5.2.4 Pressure Dependence of the Anisotropy of Superconductivity.- 5.3 Theoretical Aspects of the Origin of Superconductivity in GICs.- References.- 6. Transport Properties of Metal Chloride Acceptor Graphite Intercalation Compounds.- 6.1 The In-Plane Electrical Resistivity.- 6.1.1 General Considerations.- 6.1.2 Ideal Electrical Resistivity.- 6.1.3 Residual Electrical Resistivity.- 6.1.4 Two-Dimensional Localization and Interaction Effects.- 6.1.5 Electrical Conductivity and Charge Transfer.- 6.2 The In-Plane Thermal Conductivity.- 6.2.1 Electronic Thermal Conductivity.- 6.2.2 Lattice Thermal Conductivity.- 6.2.3 Separation of the Electronic and Lattice Contributions.- 6.2.4 The Extra Contribution due to the Intercalate.- 6.3 The In-Plane Thermoelectric Power.- 6.3.1 Experimental Results.- 6.3.2 Mechanisms for Thermoelectric Power Generation in Solids.- (a) Diffusion Thermoelectric Power.- (b) Phonon-Drag Thermoelectric Power.- 6.3.3 Discussion of the GIC Results.- 6.4 c Axis Transport and Anisotropy.- 6.4.1 c Axis Electrical Resistivity.- 6.4.2 c Axis Thermal Conductivity and Thermoelectric Power.- 6.4.3 Anisotropy and Dimensionality.- 6.5 Transport in Magnetic GICs.- 6.5.1 Electrical Resistivity.- 6.5.2 Thermal Conductivity.- 6.5.3 Thermoelectric Power.- 6.6 Concluding Remarks.- References.- 7. Magnetic Intercalation Compounds of Graphite.- 7.1 Background.- 7.1.1 Theoretical Considerations.- 7.1.2 Magnetism in Layered Compounds.- (a) Comparison of Magnetic Superlattices.- (b) Magnetic Intercalation into Various Hosts.- 7.1.3 Structure of Magnetic Graphite Intercalation Compounds.- (a) Structure of Acceptor Compounds.- (b) Structure of Donor Compounds.- 7.2 Origin of Magnetic Interactions.- 7.2.1 Magnetic Hamiltonians for Acceptor Compounds.- (a) Magnetic Hamiltonian for NiCl2 GICs.- (b) Magnetic Hamiltonian for CoCl2 GICs.- (c) Magnetic Hamiltonian for MnCl2 GICs.- 7.2.2 Magnetic Hamiltonian for Donor Compounds.- 7.2.3 The 2D-XY Model: Theoretical Considerations.- 7.3 Experimental Techniques for Studying GICs.- 7.3.1 Magnetic Susceptibility.- 7.3.2 Magnetization.- 7.3.3 Heat Capacity.- 7.3.4 Neutron Scattering.- 7.3.5 Electrical Resistivity and Magnetoresistance.- 7.3.6 Thermal Transport.- 7.3.7 Electron-Spin Resonance.- 7.3.8 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.- 7.3.9 Mössbauer Spectroscopy.- 7.3.10 Other Techniques.- 7.4 Overview of Magnetic GICs.- 7.4.1 Overview of Acceptors.- (a) NiCl2 GICs.- (b) CoCl2 GICs.- (c) MnCl2 GICs.- (d) FeCl3 GICs.- (e) FeCl2 GICs.- (f) CuCl2 GICs.- (g) CrCl3 GICs.- (h) MoCl5 GICs.- (i) Fluoride Compounds.- (j) Bromide Compounds.- (k) Bi-Intercalation Compounds.- (l) Magnetic Alloys and Dilution Compounds.- 7.4.2 Overview of Donors.- (a) The Magnetic Donor C6Eu.- (b) Other Donors.- 7.5 Summary.- References.- 8. Intercalation of Graphite Fibers.- 8.1 Precursor Graphite Fibers.- 8.2 Intercalation.- 8.3 Structure and Staging.- 8.4 Raman Characterization.- 8.5 Transport Properties.- 8.5.1 Electrical Conductivity.- 8.5.2 Stability Issues.- 8.5.3 Magnetoresistance.- 8.5.4 Weak Localization Effects.- 8.5.5 Thermal Transport Properties.- 8.5.6 Thermopower.- 8.6 Mechanical Properties.- 8.7 Thermal Expansion.- 8.8 Applications of Intercalated Carbon Fibers.- 8.9. Summary and Conclusions.- References.

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