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Life Sciences - Plant Sciences | Theoretical and Applied Genetics - 2016 Impact Factor 4.132

Theoretical and Applied Genetics

Theoretical and Applied Genetics

International Journal of Plant Breeding Research

Editor-in-Chief: Albrecht E. Melchinger

ISSN: 0040-5752 (print version)
ISSN: 1432-2242 (electronic version)

Journal no. 122

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Instructions for Authors

Manuscript Submission 

Manuscript Submission

Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.

Permissions

Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.

Online Submission

Please follow the hyperlink “Submit online” on the right and upload all of your manuscript files following the instructions given on the screen.

Important note:

Theoretical and Applied Genetics accepts manuscripts which were deposited on non-commercial pre-print servers like bioRxiv.

Information for Review Authors 

TAG publishes review articles in all key areas of modern plant genetics, genomics and biotechnology.
In general, review articles are invited by the Reviews Editor. Potential new authors should contact the Reviews Editor first. Please provide a short outline (one or two pages) and the complete author list of the proposed review.
The general instructions for authors should be used for all technical aspects of manuscript preparation. The "Materials and methods" and "Results" sections are not needed, but please give an introduction before proceeding to the details and use informative headings for the different parts of your review.

Minimum requirements for experimental studies 

• Manuscripts on QTL mapping by any method (association mapping, linkage mapping, etc.) require a minimum sample size of N > 100, whereby larger populations may be required depending on the complexity of the genetic architecture, the heritability of the trait and other relevant factors. Studies on genomic selection generally require sample sizes of N > 200 and precise information about the structure of the population due to relatedness and/or ancestral structure. Likewise, adequate marker densities are required depending on the state-of-the-art for the respective species. Deviations from these rules are possible in well-justified cases to be explained in the cover letter.
• Studies involving phenotyping of complex quantitative traits must be conducted in at least three independent test environments (e.g. three locations and/or years for field trials, or three repetitions for controlled-environment experiments). The total number of phenotypic observations per genotype (i.e. environments per genotype and replications within each environment) must reflect the complexity of the genetic architecture and the heritability of the trait. Deviations from the minimum requirements must be justified in the cover letter, but may nevertheless lead to immediate rejection of the manuscript.
• For manuscripts describing genetic, genomic or transcriptomic characterisation of plant genetic resources (PGR), deposition of underlying genotype or sequencing data into appropriate public repositories is mandatory. For publication in TAG, research on PGR must provide a highly significant new contribution to theoretical and/or applied aspects of PGR management and utilization. The work has to be of interest to a broader scientific community, i.e. not only of specific interest to PGR specialists.
• For submissions describing genetic mapping or QTL studies, provision of the corresponding genotype, phenotype and mapping data (e.g. .loc or .map files) as supplementary data is expected. Manuscripts which describe computer code or software as an essential component of the results must include download links that allow readers to access the software or scripts, along with the formatted example datasets used in the publication.
• Publications which report novel resistance genes or alleles must fulfil the following requirements before they will be considered for publication: 1) The novelty of the gene/allele in comparison to known resistance genes must be demonstrated by allelism tests in appropriate segregating progenies; 2) The usefulness of the new resistance must be demonstrated by comparing the level of resistance against predominant pathotypes in multi-environment field tests, using existing resistant cultivars as standards; 3) If possible, the novel resistance source must be deposited to one or more internationally accessible germplasm repositories without usage restrictions; 4) Marker sequences and data must be fully disclosed in the publication. 5) Where appropriate, the new gene name must have been approved by the responsible gene nomenclature authority for the crop in question, and written confirmation of the approval should be uploaded with the manuscript as additional material not for publication.
• A submission to TAG generally implies that materials described in the manuscript (e.g. mutants, genetic stocks, novel resistance sources, transgenic plants, vectors, antibodies, enzymes, primer sequences or software), should be freely available to any researcher wishing to use them for non-commercial purposes. Authors are expected to comply with requests for materials within 60 days after receipt of the request. Where appropriate, requestors should be prepared to cover reasonable costs of the request. Furthermore, availability of the materials may be subject to an institutional Material Transfer Agreement that limits their use to non-profit research purposes.
• The journal also strongly encourages that all datasets on which the conclusions of the paper rely, including all relevant raw data necessary to support the major claims and enable their verification or replication, should be made available to readers. We encourage authors to ensure that their datasets are either deposited in publicly available repositories (where available and appropriate) with an appropriate data citation, or presented in the main manuscript or additional supporting files whenever possible. Please see Springer Nature’s information on recommended repositories. Datasets that are assigned digital object identifiers (DOIs) by a data repository may be cited in the reference list. Data citations should include the minimum information recommended by DataCite: authors, title, publisher (repository name), identifier.
• Manuscripts that describe new applications or concepts that use proprietary, non-public data (e.g. genotype data from a commercial breeding program) may be considered by TAG without provision of the underlying data, but only if the methods, results and/or conclusions of the manuscript are sufficiently novel and interesting to warrant publication in their own right. Any restrictions that may affect sharing of the materials must be stated in the letter of submission as well as in the Materials and Methods section. The reviewers and editors will decide on the acceptability of these restrictions when considering the manuscript for publication.
• TAG encourages authors to provide a Statement of Data Availability in their article. Data availability statements should include information on where data supporting the results reported in the article can be found, including, where applicable, hyperlinks to publicly archived datasets analysed or generated during the study. Please read the “Research Data Policy” section in the Instructions for Authors for more information.

Title page 

Title Page

The title page should include:
  • The name(s) of the author(s)
  • A concise and informative title
  • The affiliation(s) and address(es) of the author(s)
  • The e-mail address, and telephone number(s) of the corresponding author
  • If available, the 16-digit ORCID of the author(s)

Abstract

Please provide an abstract of 150 to 250 words. The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references.

Keywords

Please provide 4 to 6 keywords which can be used for indexing purposes.

Author Contribution Statement 

  • Authors must provide a short description of the contributions made by each listed author (please use initials). This will be published in a separate section in front of the Acknowledgments.
  • We insist that no author be omitted.

Note by the editor:

Please be aware that changes to the list of authors are not possible after final acceptance of the manuscript.

Key message 

Please summarize the main achievement of your manuscript beyond the meaning of the manuscript title. This "Key Message" may not contain more than 30 words, and is essential for original research papers only.

Text 

Text Formatting

Manuscripts should be submitted in Word.
  • Use a normal, plain font (e.g., 10-point Times Roman) for text.
  • Use italics for emphasis.
  • Use the automatic page numbering function to number the pages.
  • Do not use field functions.
  • Use tab stops or other commands for indents, not the space bar.
  • Use the table function, not spreadsheets, to make tables.
  • Use the equation editor or MathType for equations.
  • Save your file in docx format (Word 2007 or higher) or doc format (older Word versions).
Manuscripts with mathematical content can also be submitted in LaTeX.

Headings

Please use no more than three levels of displayed headings.

Abbreviations

Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter.

Footnotes

Footnotes can be used to give additional information, which may include the citation of a reference included in the reference list. They should not consist solely of a reference citation, and they should never include the bibliographic details of a reference. They should also not contain any figures or tables.
Footnotes to the text are numbered consecutively; those to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data). Footnotes to the title or the authors of the article are not given reference symbols.
Always use footnotes instead of endnotes.

Acknowledgments

Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section on the title page. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.

Manuscript preparation

  • Introduction
    The Introduction should state the purpose of the investigation and give a short review of the pertinent literature.
  • Materials and methods
    The Materials and methods section has to provide enough information to permit repetition of the experimental work. If the knowledge of primer, marker or gene sequences are an essential part of the results and needed to repeat the work, these sequences must be disclosed.
    In accordance with the policy of the International Advisory Committee (IAC), nucleotide or amino acid sequence information described in manuscripts must be submitted in electronic form to one of the International Nucleotide sequence Databases (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank; see also http://www.insdc.org/) or to appropriate protein databases for release no later than the date of publication of the corresponding article in TAG. Please include proper accession numbers in the manuscript at the end of the Material and Methods section and refer to this in the letter of submission. Microarray gene expression data should comply with the minimum information about microarray experiments standard (MIAME; www.mged.org/miame).
  • Results
    The Results section should describe the outcome of the study. Data should be presented as concisely as possible.
  • Discussion
    The Discussion should be an interpretation of the results and their significance with reference to work by other authors.
In case authors are encouraged to submit a revised version of their manuscript, they are required to mark all changes (e.g. using the track changes functionality of their word processing program or by colored text) and the revised version must be accompanied by a cover letter including an itemized response to the reviewer's comments.

Gene Nomenclature 

In order to ensure uniformity and clarity across research groups working on a given crop, authors are requested to adhere to the standardized nomenclatures and coordinate the naming of genes and alleles with the responsible committees.
Please name new rice genes according to rules of the Committee on Gene Symbolization, Nomenclature and Linkage (CGSNL) of the Rice Genetics Cooperative
and register newly identified rice genes online at the rice gene nomenclature portal
For Rosaceae research please follow the guidelines available on the GDR website
For soybean please obtain approval for new gene or allele names from the responsible Soybean Genetics Committee.

Scientific style 

Genus and species names should be in italics.

References 

Citation

Cite references in the text by name and year in parentheses. Some examples:
  • Negotiation research spans many disciplines (Thompson 1990).
  • This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman (1996).
  • This effect has been widely studied (Abbott 1991; Barakat et al. 1995a, b; Kelso and Smith 1998; Medvec et al. 1999, 2000).

Reference list

The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list.
Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each work. Order multi-author publications of the same first author alphabetically with respect to second, third, etc. author. Publications of exactly the same author(s) must be ordered chronologically.
  • Journal article
    Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8
    Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:
    Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329
  • Article by DOI
    Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. https://doi.org/10.1007/s001090000086
  • Book
    South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London
  • Book chapter
    Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257
  • Online document
    Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007
  • Dissertation
    Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California
Always use the standard abbreviation of a journal’s name according to the ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations, see
If you are unsure, please use the full journal title.
For authors using EndNote, Springer provides an output style that supports the formatting of in-text citations and reference list.

Tables 

  • All tables are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
  • Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
  • For each table, please supply a table caption (title) explaining the components of the table.
  • Identify any previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the table caption.
  • Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included beneath the table body.

Artwork and Illustrations Guidelines 

Electronic Figure Submission

  • Supply all figures electronically.
  • Indicate what graphics program was used to create the artwork.
  • For vector graphics, the preferred format is EPS; for halftones, please use TIFF format. MSOffice files are also acceptable.
  • Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
  • Name your figure files with "Fig" and the figure number, e.g., Fig1.eps.

Line Art

Line BW
  • Definition: Black and white graphic with no shading.
  • Do not use faint lines and/or lettering and check that all lines and lettering within the figures are legible at final size.
  • All lines should be at least 0.1 mm (0.3 pt) wide.
  • Scanned line drawings and line drawings in bitmap format should have a minimum resolution of 1200 dpi.
  • Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.

Halftone Art

Halftone gray color
  • Definition: Photographs, drawings, or paintings with fine shading, etc.
  • If any magnification is used in the photographs, indicate this by using scale bars within the figures themselves.
  • Halftones should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.

Combination Art

Combined
  • Definition: a combination of halftone and line art, e.g., halftones containing line drawing, extensive lettering, color diagrams, etc.
  • Combination artwork should have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi.

Color Art

  • Color art is free of charge for online publication.
  • If black and white will be shown in the print version, make sure that the main information will still be visible. Many colors are not distinguishable from one another when converted to black and white. A simple way to check this is to make a xerographic copy to see if the necessary distinctions between the different colors are still apparent.
  • If the figures will be printed in black and white, do not refer to color in the captions.
  • Color illustrations should be submitted as RGB (8 bits per channel).

Figure Lettering

  • To add lettering, it is best to use Helvetica or Arial (sans serif fonts).
  • Keep lettering consistently sized throughout your final-sized artwork, usually about 2–3 mm (8–12 pt).
  • Variance of type size within an illustration should be minimal, e.g., do not use 8-pt type on an axis and 20-pt type for the axis label.
  • Avoid effects such as shading, outline letters, etc.
  • Do not include titles or captions within your illustrations.

Figure Numbering

  • All figures are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
  • Figures should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
  • Figure parts should be denoted by lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.).
  • If an appendix appears in your article and it contains one or more figures, continue the consecutive numbering of the main text. Do not number the appendix figures,
    "A1, A2, A3, etc." Figures in online appendices (Electronic Supplementary Material) should, however, be numbered separately.

Figure Captions

  • Each figure should have a concise caption describing accurately what the figure depicts. Include the captions in the text file of the manuscript, not in the figure file.
  • Figure captions begin with the term Fig. in bold type, followed by the figure number, also in bold type.
  • No punctuation is to be included after the number, nor is any punctuation to be placed at the end of the caption.
  • Identify all elements found in the figure in the figure caption; and use boxes, circles, etc., as coordinate points in graphs.
  • Identify previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference citation at the end of the figure caption.

Figure Placement and Size

  • Figures should be submitted separately from the text, if possible.
  • When preparing your figures, size figures to fit in the column width.
  • For most journals the figures should be 39 mm, 84 mm, 129 mm, or 174 mm wide and not higher than 234 mm.
  • For books and book-sized journals, the figures should be 80 mm or 122 mm wide and not higher than 198 mm.

Permissions

If you include figures that have already been published elsewhere, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format. Please be aware that some publishers do not grant electronic rights for free and that Springer will not be able to refund any costs that may have occurred to receive these permissions. In such cases, material from other sources should be used.

Accessibility

In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your figures, please make sure that
  • All figures have descriptive captions (blind users could then use a text-to-speech software or a text-to-Braille hardware)
  • Patterns are used instead of or in addition to colors for conveying information (colorblind users would then be able to distinguish the visual elements)
  • Any figure lettering has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1

Electronic Supplementary Material 

Springer accepts electronic multimedia files (animations, movies, audio, etc.) and other supplementary files to be published online along with an article or a book chapter. This feature can add dimension to the author's article, as certain information cannot be printed or is more convenient in electronic form.
Before submitting research datasets as electronic supplementary material, authors should read the journal’s Research data policy. We encourage research data to be archived in data repositories wherever possible.

Submission

  • Supply all supplementary material in standard file formats.
  • Please include in each file the following information: article title, journal name, author names; affiliation and e-mail address of the corresponding author.
  • To accommodate user downloads, please keep in mind that larger-sized files may require very long download times and that some users may experience other problems during downloading.

Audio, Video, and Animations

  • Aspect ratio: 16:9 or 4:3
  • Maximum file size: 25 GB
  • Minimum video duration: 1 sec
  • Supported file formats: avi, wmv, mp4, mov, m2p, mp2, mpg, mpeg, flv, mxf, mts, m4v, 3gp

Text and Presentations

  • Submit your material in PDF format; .doc or .ppt files are not suitable for long-term viability.
  • A collection of figures may also be combined in a PDF file.

Spreadsheets

  • Spreadsheets should be submitted as .csv or .xlsx files (MS Excel).

Specialized Formats

  • Specialized format such as .pdb (chemical), .wrl (VRML), .nb (Mathematica notebook), and .tex can also be supplied.

Collecting Multiple Files

  • It is possible to collect multiple files in a .zip or .gz file.

Numbering

  • If supplying any supplementary material, the text must make specific mention of the material as a citation, similar to that of figures and tables.
  • Refer to the supplementary files as “Online Resource”, e.g., "... as shown in the animation (Online Resource 3)", “... additional data are given in Online Resource 4”.
  • Name the files consecutively, e.g. “ESM_3.mpg”, “ESM_4.pdf”.

Captions

  • For each supplementary material, please supply a concise caption describing the content of the file.

Processing of supplementary files

  • Electronic supplementary material will be published as received from the author without any conversion, editing, or reformatting.

Accessibility

In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your supplementary files, please make sure that
  • The manuscript contains a descriptive caption for each supplementary material
  • Video files do not contain anything that flashes more than three times per second (so that users prone to seizures caused by such effects are not put at risk)

Ethical Responsibilities of Authors 

This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation can be achieved by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include:
  • The manuscript has not been submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
  • The manuscript has not been published previously (partly or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work (please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the hint of text-recycling (“self-plagiarism”)).
  • A single study is not split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (e.g. “salami-publishing”).
  • No data have been fabricated or manipulated (including images) to support your conclusions
  • No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (“plagiarism”). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions are secured for material that is copyrighted.
    Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
  • Consent to submit has been received explicitly from all co-authors, as well as from the responsible authorities - tacitly or explicitly - at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.
  • Authors whose names appear on the submission have contributed sufficiently to the scientific work and therefore share collective responsibility and accountability for the results.
  • Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, corresponding author, and order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship or in the order of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
  • Adding and/or deleting authors at revision stage may be justifiably warranted. A letter must accompany the revised manuscript to explain the role of the added and/or deleted author(s). Further documentation may be required to support your request.
  • Requests for addition or removal of authors as a result of authorship disputes after acceptance are honored after formal notification by the institute or independent body and/or when there is agreement between all authors.
  • Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential proprietary data is excluded.
If there is a suspicion of misconduct, the journal will carry out an investigation following the COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, the allegation seems to raise valid concerns, the accused author will be contacted and given an opportunity to address the issue. If misconduct has been established beyond reasonable doubt, this may result in the Editor-in-Chief’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
  • If the article is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
  • If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction, either an erratum will be placed with the article or in severe cases complete retraction of the article will occur. The reason must be given in the published erratum or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the paper is maintained on the platform, watermarked "retracted" and explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.
  • The author’s institution may be informed.

Compliance with Ethical Standards 

To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.
Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” when submitting a paper:
  • Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
  • Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
  • Informed consent
Please note that standards could vary slightly per journal dependent on their peer review policies (i.e. single or double blind peer review) as well as per journal subject discipline. Before submitting your article check the instructions following this section carefully.
The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.
The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.

Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest 

Authors must disclose all relationships or interests that could have direct or potential influence or impart bias on the work. Although an author may not feel there is any conflict, disclosure of relationships and interests provides a more complete and transparent process, leading to an accurate and objective assessment of the work. Awareness of a real or perceived conflicts of interest is a perspective to which the readers are entitled. This is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation received for consultancy work is inappropriate. Examples of potential conflicts of interests that are directly or indirectly related to the research may include but are not limited to the following:
  • Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number)
  • Honoraria for speaking at symposia
  • Financial support for attending symposia
  • Financial support for educational programs
  • Employment or consultation
  • Support from a project sponsor
  • Position on advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships
  • Multiple affiliations
  • Financial relationships, for example equity ownership or investment interest
  • Intellectual property rights (e.g. patents, copyrights and royalties from such rights)
  • Holdings of spouse and/or children that may have financial interest in the work
In addition, interests that go beyond financial interests and compensation (non-financial interests) that may be important to readers should be disclosed. These may include but are not limited to personal relationships or competing interests directly or indirectly tied to this research, or professional interests or personal beliefs that may influence your research.
The corresponding author collects the conflict of interest disclosure forms from all authors. In author collaborations where formal agreements for representation allow it, it is sufficient for the corresponding author to sign the disclosure form on behalf of all authors. Examples of forms can be found
The corresponding author will include a summary statement in the text of the manuscript in a separate section before the reference list, that reflects what is recorded in the potential conflict of interest disclosure form(s).
See below examples of disclosures:
Funding: This study was funded by X (grant number X).
Conflict of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stock in Company Y. Author C is a member of committee Z.
If no conflict exists, the authors should state:
Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals 

1) Statement of human rights

When reporting studies that involve human participants, authors should include a statement that the studies have been approved by the appropriate institutional and/or national research ethics committee and have been performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration or comparable standards, the authors must explain the reasons for their approach, and demonstrate that the independent ethics committee or institutional review board explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study.
The following statements should be included in the text before the References section:
Ethical approval: “All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.”
For retrospective studies, please add the following sentence:
“For this type of study formal consent is not required.”

2) Statement on the welfare of animals

The welfare of animals used for research must be respected. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals have been followed, and that the studies have been approved by a research ethics committee at the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted (where such a committee exists).
For studies with animals, the following statement should be included in the text before the References section:
Ethical approval: “All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.”
If applicable (where such a committee exists): “All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted.”
If articles do not contain studies with human participants or animals by any of the authors, please select one of the following statements:
“This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.”
“This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.”
“This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.”

Informed consent 

All individuals have individual rights that are not to be infringed. Individual participants in studies have, for example, the right to decide what happens to the (identifiable) personal data gathered, to what they have said during a study or an interview, as well as to any photograph that was taken. Hence it is important that all participants gave their informed consent in writing prior to inclusion in the study. Identifying details (names, dates of birth, identity numbers and other information) of the participants that were studied should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and genetic profiles unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the participant (or parent or guardian if the participant is incapable) gave written informed consent for publication. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve in some cases, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of participants is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic profiles, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning.
The following statement should be included:
Informed consent: “Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.”
If identifying information about participants is available in the article, the following statement should be included:
“Additional informed consent was obtained from all individual participants for whom identifying information is included in this article.”

Research Data Policy 

A submission to the journal implies that materials described in the manuscript, including all relevant raw data, will be freely available to any researcher wishing to use them for non-commercial purposes, without breaching participant confidentiality.
The journal strongly encourages that all datasets on which the conclusions of the paper rely should be available to readers. We encourage authors to ensure that their datasets are either deposited in publicly available repositories (where available and appropriate) or presented in the main manuscript or additional supporting files whenever possible. Please see Springer Nature’s information on recommended repositories.
General repositories - for all types of research data - such as figshare and Dryad may be used where appropriate.
Datasets that are assigned digital object identifiers (DOIs) by a data repository may be cited in the reference list. Data citations should include the minimum information recommended by DataCite: authors, title, publisher (repository name), identifier.
Where a widely established research community expectation for data archiving in public repositories exists, submission to a community-endorsed, public repository is mandatory. Persistent identifiers (such as DOIs and accession numbers) for relevant datasets must be provided in the paper
For the following types of data set, submission to a community-endorsed, public repository is mandatory:
Mandatory depositionSuitable repositories
Protein sequencesUniprot
DNA and RNA sequencesGenbank
DNA DataBank of Japan (DDBJ)
EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database (ENA)
DNA and RNA sequencing dataNCBI Trace Archive
NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA)
Genetic polymorphismsdbSNP
dbVar
European Variation Archive (EVA)
Linked genotype and phenotype datadbGAP
The European Genome-phenome Archive (EGA)
Macromolecular structureWorldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB)
Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank (BMRB)
Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB)
Microarray data (must be MIAME compliant)Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO)
ArrayExpress
Crystallographic data for small moleculesCambridge Structural Database

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Data Availability statements can take one of the following forms (or a combination of more than one if required for multiple datasets):
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  • 3. The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
  • 4. Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.
  • 5. All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article [and its supplementary information files].
More examples of template data availability statements, which include examples of openly available and restricted access datasets, are available:
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    Theoretical and Applied Genetics publishes original research and review articles in all key areas of modern plant genetics, plant genomics and plant biotechnology. All work needs to have a clear genetic component and significant impact on plant breeding. Theoretical considerations are only accepted in combination with new experimental data and/or if they indicate a relevant application in plant genetics or breeding. Preference is given to work on leading crop plants and manuscripts presenting innovative approaches.

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