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Life Sciences - Plant Sciences | The Chloroplast - Basics and Applications

The Chloroplast

Basics and Applications

Rebeiz, C.A., Benning, C., Bohnert, H., Daniell, H., Hoober, J.K., Lichtenthaler, H.K., Portis, A.R., Tripathy, B.C. (Eds.)

2010, XLII, 426 p.

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  • Addresses the major problem of increasing the food-making capabilities of green plants by rewiring the chloroplast via chloroplast bioengineering
  • Focus future attention on "Chloroplast Bioengineering" as an integrated novel field of research

The world population is expected to increase to 9 billion by the year 2050 which will generate food and fuel shortages. Since it will be difficult to increase the land area under cultivation without serious environmental consequences, higher productivity for biomass is required. Improvement in photosynthetic efficiency would require increased knowledge and deeper understanding of :(a) the biosynthesis of photosynthetic membrane components such as hemes, chlorophylls, carotenoids, quinones, and lipids; (b) photosynthetic membrane apoprotein biosynthesis; (c) the biosynthesis and regulation of the assembly of pigment-apoprotein complexes; and (d) the complexities of carbon sensing, biosynthesis and allocation. These goals may be accomplished by bioengineering of chloroplasts with higher photosynthetic efficiency and superior adaptation to various stresses and/or alteration of the kinetic properties of the CO2-assimilating enzyme, Rubisco. Advances towards this goal are addressed in this volume that will foster cooperation between biochemists and molecular biologists, scientists involved in photosynthesis research and biotechnologists involved in plant and plastid genomics and transformation. We envision future research to focus attention on "Chloroplast Bioengineering" as an integrated novel field of research. This book is designed for graduate students and researchers in chlorophyll metabolism, integrative plant biology, plant physiology, plant biochemistry, plant molecular biology, biotechnology, bioenergy and biofuels.

Content Level » Research

Keywords » Chloroplast - Expression - Plant physiology - Protein - Tetrapyrrole - Transport - biochemistry - biotechnology - genetic engineering - photosynthesis - physiology - protein complexes - regulation

Related subjects » Biochemistry & Biophysics - Cell Biology - Plant Sciences

Table of contents 

From the Series Editor.- Contents.- Preface.- Contributors.- Authors.- Acknowledgements.- The Editors.- 1. Investigation of Possible Relationships between the Chlorophyll Biosynthetic Pathway, the Assembly of Chlorophyll-Protein Complexes and Photosynthetic Efficiency; C.A. Rebeiz.- 2. Evidence for Various 4-Vinyl Reductase Activities in Higher Plants; V.L. Kolossov, C.A. Rebeiz.- 3. Control of the Metabolic Flow in Tetrapyrrole Biosynthesis: Regulation of Expression and Activity of Enzymes in the Mg Branch of Tetrapyrrole Biosynthesis; B. Grimm.- 4. Regulation and Functions of the Chlorophyll Cycle; R. Tanaka et al.- 5. Magnesium Chelatase; C.G. Kannangara, D. von Wettstein.- 6. The Enigmatic Chlorophyll a Molecule in the Cytochrome b?f Complex; W.A. Cramer et al.- 7. The Non-mevalonate DOXP/MEP Pathway (Deoxyxylulose 5-Phosphate/Methylerythritol 4-Phosphate Pathway) of Chloroplast Isoprenoid and Pigemtn Biosynthesis; H.K. Lichtenthaler.- 8. The Methylerythritol 4-Phosphate Pathway: Regulatory Role in Plastid Isoprenoid Biosynthesis; A. Boronat.- 9. The Role of Plastids in Protein Geranylgeranylation in Tobacco BY-2 Cells; E. Gerber et al.- 10. The Role of the Methyl-Erythritol-Phosphate Pathway in Rhythmic Emission of Volatiles; D.A. Nagegowda.- 11. Tocochromanols: Biological Function and Recent Advances to Engineer Plastidial Biochemistry for Enhanced Oil Seed Vitamin E Levels; H.E. Valentin, Q. Qi.- 12. The Anionic Chloroplast Membrane Lipids Phosphatidylglycerol and Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol; Ch. Benning.- 13. Biosynthesis and Function of Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, the Signature Lipid of Chloroplasts; Y. Nakamura et al.- 14. Synthesis and Functiion of the Galactolipid Digalactosyldiacylglycerol; P. Dörmann.- 15. The Chemistry and Biology of Light-Harvesting Complex II and Thylakoid Biogenesis: raison d’etre of Chorophylls b and c; J.K. Hooper et al.- 16. Folding and Pigment Binding of Light-Harvesting Chlorophyll a/b Protein; H. Paulsen et al.- 17.The Plastid Genome as a Platform for the Expression of Microbial Resistance Genes; T.A. Ruhlman et al.- 18. Chloroplast Genetic Engineering: A Novel Technology for Agricultural Biotechnology and Bio-pharmaceutical Industry; N.D. Singh, H. Daniell.- 19. Engineering the Sunflower Rubisco Subunits into Tobacco Chloroplasts: New Considerations; R.E. Sharwood, S.M. Whitney.- 20. Engineering Photosynthetic Enzymes Involved in CO? - Assimilation by Gene Shuffling; G. Zhu et al.- 21. Elevated CO? and Ozone: Their Effects on Photosynthesis; R. Grene et al.- 22. Regulation of Photosynthetic Electron Transport; T. Shikana.- 23. Mechanisms of Drought and High Light Stress Tolerance Studied in a Xerophyte, Citrullus Ianatus (Wild Watermelon); Y. Nanasato et al.- 24. Antioxidants and Photo-oxidative Stress Responses in Plants and Algae; A. Sirikhachornkit, K.K. Niyogi.- 25. Singlet Oxygen-Induced Oxidative Stress in Plants; B.C. Tripathy, G.K. Pattanayak.

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