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Life Sciences - Plant Sciences | Progress in Botany / Fortschritte der Botanik - Structural Botany Physiology Genetics Taxonomy

Progress in Botany / Fortschritte der Botanik

Structural Botany Physiology Genetics Taxonomy Geobotany / Struktur Physiologie Genetik Systematik Geobotanik

Series: Progress in Botany, Vol. 57

Behnke, H.-D., Lüttge, U., Esser, K., Kadereit, J.W., Runge, M.

Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1996, XX, 435 pp. 50 figs.

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  • About this book

With one new volume each year, this series keeps scientists and advanced students informed of the latest developments and results in all areas of botany. The present volume includes reviews on plant physiology, genetics, taxonomy and geobotany.

Content Level » Research

Keywords » Biomembran - Flora - algae - botanics - development - ecology - forest - fungi - metabolism - physiology - plant - plant tissue culture - plants - systematics - taxonomy

Related subjects » Agriculture - Forestry - Plant Sciences

Table of contents 

Review.- Botanical Aspects of Landscape Ecology with Outlooks on Forest Dieback.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Important Concepts.- a) Landscape and Landscape Ecology.- b) Geoecology.- c) Ecotopes and Other Units in the Landscape.- d) Site and Environment.- 3. Research Methods and Some Results.- a) Exploring and Mapping the Ecological Pattern.- b) Functions and Turnovers in Landscapes.- c) Potentials, Suitabilities, Values, and Risks.- 4. Regional Examples of Landscape Ecological Studies.- a) Central Europe.- b) Other Parts of the World.- 5. Practical Tasks and Responsibilities.- a) Land Use Planning and Nature Conservation.- b) Public Importance of Landscape Ecology.- 6. Problems of Forest Dieback.- a) Known Forms and Causes of Forest Decline.- b) The General Forest Dieback as a Construct.- References.- A. Physiology.- I. Plant Water Relations: Metabolic Responses to Water Deficit and Surplus.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Effects of Water Deficit on Cellular Processes.- a) Influence of Water Stress on Protein Biosynthesis.- b) Metabolism of Drought Stress-Protective Compatible Nitrogen Compounds.- c) Oxidative Damage and Compensatory Metabolic Responses Under Cellular Water Stress.- 3. Effects of Water Surplus on Plant Performance.- a) Transcription and Protein Synthesis Under Hypoxic Conditions.- b) Disturbance Effects of Hypoxia on Intermediary Metabolism.- 4. Conclusions.- References.- II. The Leaf Epidermis: its Ecophysiologieal Significance.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Morphology of Epidermal Cells and Their Subcellular Organization.- 3. New Methods in the Investigation of Epidermal Functions.- 4. Interactions Between Environmental Factors Acting on Plants and the Leaf Epidermis.- a) Visible and UV Light.- b) Water Vapor Saturation Deficit.- c) Gases.- d) Xenobiotics.- e) Pathogens.- 5. The Biochemistry of the Epidermis.- a) Basic Epidermal Metabolism.- b) Synthesis of Cuticular Compounds.- c) Secondary Plant Products.- 6. Function of the Epidermis in Mineral Nutrition.- a) Compartmentation of Nutrient Elements.- b) Salt and Water Stress.- c) Heavy Metal Stress.- 7. The Role of the Epidermis in Homeostasis of the Plant Stress Hormone Abscisic Acid (ABA).- a) ABA Uptake.- b) Basic Permeability of the Epidermis Plasma Membrane.- c) ABA Transport Across the Epidermis Plasma Membrane.- d) ABA Transport Across the Epidermis Tonoplast.- e) ABA Metabolism in the Epidermis.- f) Consequences of Epidermal ABA Uptake and Metabolism for ABA Redistribution in Stressed Leaves.- 8. First Approaches Towards a Genetic Understanding of Epidermal Cell Specificity.- References.- III. Developmental Physiology: Regulation of Polar Cell Growth and Morphogenesis.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Cellular Morphogenesis.- a) Induction and Rise of Polarity in the Fucacean Zygote.- b) Cell Shape Formation in Desmid Cells.- 3. Polar Tip Growth of Pollen Tubes, Rhizoid and Root Hair Cells.- a) Morphology, Cytoskeleton, and Cytoplasmic Streaming.- b) Turgor Pressure and Cell Growth.- c) Ion Pumps, Channels, Currents, and Growth Localization.- d) Exocytosis and Vesicle Fusion.- e) Molecular Biology of Polar Growth.- 4. Concluding Remarks.- References.- IV. Intracellular Movement.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Actin- and Microtubule-Dependent Organelle Motors.- 3. Cytoplasmic Streaming.- a) Vaucheria andAcetabularia.- b) Characean Internodal Cells.- ?) Actin and Myosin.- ?) Tubulin.- ?) Mechanism of Streaming.- ?) Calcium Effects on Reconstituted Motility.- 4. Oriented Positioning of Organelles.- a) Nuclear Positioning.- b) Chloroplast Orientation in Mougeotia, Mesotaenium, and Adiantum.- ?) Photoreceptors.- ?) Mechanics of the Movement.- ?) Calcium Effects.- ?) Microtubules.- References.- V. Thermotropic Responses of Biomembranes Exemplified by the Tonoplast of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plants.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Role of the Vacuole in Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) and the Transport of Malic Acid Across the Tonoplast.- 3. The Tonoplast as a Likely Target of Temperature Effects on CAM: Physiological Evidence.- 4. Modalities of Order and Dynamics in Biomembranes.- a) Modalities of Order.- ?) Domains.- ß) Asymmetry.- b) Modalities of Dynamics.- 5. The Thermotropic Responses of Tonoplast Fluidity in CAM Plants.- 6. Outlook.- References.- VI. Nitrate or Ammonium Uptake and Transport, and Rapid Regulation of Nitrate Reduction in Higher Plants.- 1. General Introduction.- 2. Uptake of Nitrogen.- a) Nitrate Uptake Mechanisms.- b) Ammonium Uptake Mechanisms.- c) Energy Dependency.- d) Nitrate Versus Ammonium Uptake.- e) Summary.- 3. Long-Distance Transport of Nitrogen.- a) Site of Nitrogen Assimilation.- b) Transported N Compounds.- c) Partitioning.- 4. Rapid Regulation of Nitrate Reduction.- a) In Vivo Conditions Modulating NRA.- ?) Light.- ß) Response to CO2.- ?) Oxygen Availability.- b) Reversible Protein Phosphorylation as the Regulatory Mechanism.- c) Involvement of an Inhibitor Protein.- d) Signals Triggering PK and PP.- References.- VII. Secondary Plant Substances: Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloids.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Reticuline.- 3. Morphinan-Type Alkaloids.- 4. Bisbenzylisoquinoline Alkaloids.- 5. Cularine-Type Alkaloids.- 6. Aporphine Alkaloids.- 7. Protoberberine Alkaloids.- 8. Benzophenanthridine Alkaloids.- 9. Phytoalexins.- References.- VIII. Carbohydrate Processing in the Mesophyll Trajectory in Symplasmic and Apoplasmic Phloem Loading.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Outlines and Definitions of Phloem Loading.- 3. The Principal Modes of Phloem Loading.- a) Evolution of the Phloem-Loading Machinery.- b) Apoplasmic Phloem Loading.- c) Symplasmic Phloem Loading.- d) Physiological Evidence for Two Modes of Phloem Loading.- 4. Carbohydrate Metabolism and Intracellular Compartmentation.- a) Sucrose Metabolism and Intracellular Compartmentation of C-Metabolites.- b) Interplay Between Chloroplastic, Cytosolic and Vacuolar Compartmentation of Sucrose.- c) Uptake of Sucrose and Hexoses by Vacuoles.- d) Metabolism and Compartmentation of Other Soluble Carbohydrates.- 5. Intercellular Compartmentation, Metabolic Processing, and Division of Labor in the Production Compartment of “Apoplasmic Loaders”.- a) Driving Forces of Intercellular Photosynthate Movement.- b) Path of Intercellular Movement.- c) Retrieval Along the Production Compartment.- d) Scattered or Focused Release from the Production Compartment?.- e) Mechanism of Release from the Production Compartment.- 6. Intercellular Compartmentation, Metabolic Processing, and Divison of Labor in the Mesophyll Domain of “Symplasmic Loaders”.- a) Driving Forces of Intercellular Photosynthate Movement.- b) Intercellular Photosynthate Movement.- c) Retrieval Along the Mesophyll Trajectory.- d) Localization of the Galactosyl Oligosaccharide Synthesis in the Mesophyll Trajectory.- 7. The Consequences of the Spatial Cell Arrangement for Photoassimilate Trafficking in the Production Compartment.- a) Preferential Pathways Through the Production Compartment Towards the Collection Compartment?.- b) Differences in C-Processing Between Palisade and Spongy Parenchyma?.- 8. Concluding Remarks.- References.- B. Genetics.- I. DNA Replication and DNA Repair.- 1. Introduction and Some Impressive Numbers.- 2. General Reviews and Hot Topics.- 3. DNA Repair Mechanisms.- a) Photoreactivation.- b) Excision Repair.- c) Transcription-Coupled Repair.- d) Mismatch Repair (Postreplication Repair).- e) Telomeres.- 4. DNA Repair in Plants.- 5. News on DNA Amplification.- 6. Conclusions.- References.- II. Recombination: Novel Gene and Genome Combinations for Resistance Breeding by Hybridization and Genetic Transformation.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Introgression of Foreign Genes for Disease and Pest Resistance by Interspecific Hybridization.- a) Sexual Hybridization and Embryo Rescue.- b) Somatic Hybridization.- 3. Genetically Engineered Resistance.- a) Virus Resistance.- ?) Coat Protein-Mediated Resistance.- ?) Antisense RNA for Virus Resistance.- ?) Movement Proteins.- ?) Replicase-Mediated Resistance to Viruses.- b) Resistance to Bacterial Pathogens.- c) Resistance to Fungal Pathogens.- ?) Transgenic Expression of Antifungal Proteins.- ?) Phytoalexines.- 4. Interspecific Hybridization Versus Transformation.- 5. Conclusions and Future Prospects.- References.- III. Extranuclear Inheritance: Plastid Genetics.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Results of Sequencing the Plastid Genomes of a Gymnosperm and Two Algae.- a) Pinus thunbergii.- b) Euglena gracilis.- c) Porphyra purpurea.- 3. Plastome Mutants of Higher Plants and the Elucidation of Their Molecular Basis.- a) Herbicide Resistances.- b) Antibiotic Resistances.- c) Plastome Mutants of Higher Plants with Photosynthetic Deficiencies.- 4. RNA Editing in Plastids.- 5. Plastid Transformation: Advances and Applications.- a) Methodological Improvements.- b) Current Applications of Plastid Transformation in Higher Plants.- References.- IV. Molecular Cell Biology: Signal Transduction in Plants.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Cytosolic Ca2+ as Second Messenger.- 3. GTP-Binding Proteins: a Broad Protein Family.- 4. Nuclear Pores and Nuclear Transport of Proteins.- 5. Conclusions.- References.- V. Genetics of Phytopathogenic Fungi.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Molecular Diversity of Fungi.- 3. Genetic Analysis of Host-Pathogen Interaction.- a) Pathogenicity Genes.- b) Avirulence Genes.- 4. Perspectives.- References.- C. Taxonomy.- I. Flower Evolution.- 1. Introduction.- a) Interdisciplinary Meetings, Reports and Results.- b) Books.- 2. Molecular Genetics of Flower Development — Evolutionary Aspects.- a) Expansion of the “ABC Model”.- b) Floral Genes Used as Markers for Phylogenetic Reconstruction.- c) Floral Mutants Interesting from an Evolutionary Point of View.- d) Sex Expression.- 3. Phylogenetic Framework.- a) Relationship Among Anthophytes.- b) Relationships Among Basal Angiosperms.- c) Implications of Phylogenetic Models for the Origin of Angiosperm Flowers.- 4. Anthophytes.- 5. Angiosperms.- a) Paleoherbs (incl. Ceratophyllales).- b) Basal Monocots.- c) Laurales.- d) Magnoliales.- e) Winteroids.- f) Eudicots.- 6. Concluding Remarks.- References.- II. Systematics and Evolution of the Algae: Endocytobiosis and Evolution of the Major Algal Lineages.- 1. General Aspects.- 2. Books and General Reviews.- 3. Molecular Phylogenetics.- 4. Plastid Phylogeny.- a) The Cyanobacterial Origin of Plastids (Phyletic Primary Endocytobiosis).- b) Origin of Plastids by Phyletic Secondary Endocytobioses.- 5. Phylogeny of the Major Algal Lineages.- 6. Conclusion.- References.- III. Lichenized and Lichenicolous Fungi 1993–1994.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Character Investigation.- a) Morphology Anatomy, and Ontogeny of the Mycobiont.- b) Chemotaxonomy.- c) Photobiont.- d) Molecular Biology.- e) Biology.- f) Phylogeny.- 3. Classification.- a) General.- b) Lichenized Ascomycetes.- ?) Discocarpous Orders — Lecanorales.- ?) Other Discocarpous Orders.- ?) Pyrenocarpous Orders.- c) Incertae sedis.- 4. Floristics.- a) General.- b) The Northern Extratropics.- ?) Europe.- ?) North America.- ?) Other Areas.- c) The Tropics.- d) The Southern Extratropics.- 5. Chorology.- a) Intercontinental Floristic Affinities.- 6. Ecology and Physiology.- a) Analysis of Vegetation Structures.- b) External Relations.- c) In Vitro Cultivation.- 7. Applied Aspects.- a) Pollution Monitoring.- b) Conservation.- 8. Lichenicolous Fungi.- References.- D. Geobotany.- I. Seed, Pollen, and Clonal Dispersal and Their Role in Structuring Plant Populations.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Seed Dispersal.- a) General Aspects.- b) Effects of Dispersal.- c) Implications for Nature Protection.- d) Dispersal Agents.- ?) Wind.- ?) Water.- ?) Ants.- ?) Vertebrates.- 3. Dispersal and Microevolutionary Change.- a) Population Subdivision, Gene Flow, and the Genetic Neighborhood Area.- b) Dispersal of Pollen and Seeds and Gene Flow.- c) Pollinator Flight Distances and Pollen Dispersal.- d) Variation in Pollen Dispersal Distances and Progeny Fitness.- e) Pollinator Behavior and its Effect on Pollen Dispersal.- f) Applied Aspects of Pollen Dispersal.- 4. Dispersal by Clonal Growth.- References.- E. Special Topics.- I. Phloem in Plant Tissue Cultures.- 1. General Introduction.- 2. Experimental Induction of Phloem In Vitro.- 3. The Structure of Phloem Formed In Vitro.- 4. Phloem Function in Cultured Tissues.- 5. Isolation of Sieve Elements from Callus Tissue.- 6. Monoclonal Antibody Production.- 7. Molecular Biology of the Phloem.- 8. Final Remark.- References.- IL Floral Ecology.- Report on the Years 1992 (1991) to 1994 (1995).- 1. Introduction.- 2. Functional Aspects of Flowers and Inflorescences, Flower Longevity, Movement, Metabolism, and Flower Mimesis.- 3. Means of Attraction, Rewards.- a) Pigmentation, Visual Patterns, and Color Vision.- b) Production of Scent and Heat.- c) Nectaries and Nectar; Oil Secretion and Oil Flowers.- d) Pollen and Pollen Presentation.- 4. Pollinator Behavior, Pollinator Efficiency, Flower Constancy, Foraging Strategies.- 5. Flower Classes and Their Evolution.- a) Zoophily.- ?) Evolution and Pollination of Early Angiosperms; Cantharophily; Flies, Thrips, and Gall Midges as Pollinators.- ?) Melittophily and Ant Pollination.- ?) Psychophily, Phalenophily, and Sphingophily.- ?) Ornithophily.- ?) Mammal Pollination.- b) Anemophily and Hydrophily.- 6. Pollination of Particular Groups; Flower Biological Radiation.- a) Differentiation of Various Angiosperms at the Species, Genus, and Family Level.- b) Ficus.- c) Orchids.- d) Economy of Pollination and Crop Plants.- 7. Breeding Systems and Gender Distribution.- a) Pollen-Pistil Interaction.- b) Incompatibility Versus Compatibility; Cleistogamy, Apomixis.- c) Heterostyly.- d) Sex Distribution; Monoecism Versus Dioecism, and the Costs and Benefits of Reproduction.- 8. Pollination Studies at the Community Level, Distribution of Flower Types, Flowering Phenology, and Nature Conservation.- References.

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