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Life Sciences - Plant Sciences | Progress in Botany - Structural Botany Physiology Genetics Taxonomy Geobotany/Fortschritte der

Progress in Botany

Structural Botany Physiology Genetics Taxonomy Geobotany/Fortschritte der Botanik Struktur Physiologie Genetik Systematik Geobotanik

Series: Progress in Botany, Vol. 56

Behnke, H.-D., Lüttge, U., Esser, K., Kadereit, J.W., Runge, M.

Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1995, XVIII, 490 pp. 57 figs.

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With one new volume each year, this series keeps scientists and advanced students informed of the latest developments and results in all areas of botany. The present volume includes reviews on structural botany, plant physiology, genetics, taxonomy, and geobotany.

Content Level » Research

Keywords » Botanik - Bryophyte - Geobotanik - Geobotany - Mangrove - Pflanzenphysiologie - Plant Physiology - Symbiose - Systematik, Pflanzen - botanics - escherichia coli - genetic engineering - metabolism - physiology - systematics

Related subjects » Agriculture - Cell Biology - Ecology - Forestry - Plant Sciences

Table of contents 

Review.- Stable Isotope in Plant Physiology and Ecology.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Abundance of Stable Isotopes.- 3. Units of Isotope Composition, Standards and Isotope Fractionation...- 4. Isotope Composition of Natural Isotopes.- a) 13C/12C Ratio.- ?) Basic Results.- ?) Carbon Isotope Fractionation in Plants Performing Different Types of Photosynthetic CO2 Fixation..- ?) Different Fractionation of Carbon Isotopes Due to Variable Environmental Conditions.- ?) ?13C Values in Trophic and Edaphic Chains.- b) 2H/lH Ratio.- c) 18O/16O Ratio.- d) 15N/14N Ratio.- e) 34S/32S Ratio.- References.- A. Structural Botany.- I. Cytology and Morphogenesis of the Prokaryotic Cell.- 1. Structural Organization and Biogenesis of Bacterial Flagella.- 2. Techniques to Study the Structure of Biofilms.- 3. A Consortium of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria with the Capacity to Reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III).- 4. Establishment of Biofilms in the Laboratory, and Studies of Inherent Dynamics and Interactions.- References.- II. Cytology and Morphogenesis of Pollen and Spores.- 1. Delimitation of Topics; Monographs, Conference Proceedings, etc...- 2. Preparation Methods and the Preservation of Structures.- 3. Some Aspects of the Early Stages in Normal and Abnormal Spore/Pollen Grain Development.- a) Organization of Metabolically Highly Active Cells.- b) Mosses and Ferns.- c) Gymnosperms.- d) Angiosperms.- 4. First and Second Pollen Mitosis.- 5. Structural Connections Between VN, GC, and Sperm Cells (MGU Concept).- 6. Pollen Germination and the Early Stages of Pollen Tube Growth...- 7. Sporoderm Development and Composition.- a) Fossil Material, Ferns, and Gymnosperms.- b) Excursus on the Phylogenetic Significance of Spore/Pollen Wall and Aperture Organization and Development.- c) Exine Substructure Organization.- d) Young Stages: Role of Callose, Monad Versus Polyad Development.- e) Exine Pattern.- f) Exine Coating: Composition and Function.- g) Intine and Other Sporoderm Strata.- References.- B. Physiology.- I. Plant Water Relations.- 1. Water Relations of Cells and Tissues.- 2. Root Water Uptake and Water Movement Through the Plant..- 3. Stomatal Behavior and Transpiration.- 4. Water Relations of Seeds and During Early Germination Stages...- a) Orthodox Seeds.- b) Recalcitrant Seeds.- 5. Implications of Water Stress.- a) Drought Effects on Metabolism.- b) Drought Resistance.- 6. Habitat Water Relations and Plant Performance.- 7. Water Relations of Poikilohydric Plants.- References.- II. Humic Substances and Plant Nutrition.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Definitions, Chemical and Structural Characteristics of Humic Substances.- 3. Effects of Humic Substances on Soil Fertility.- a) Physical Properties of Soil.- b) Source of Nutrients.- c) Influence on Cation Exchange Capacity.- d) Complexing Properties.- 4. Effect on Growth and Nutrient Contents of Plants.- 5. Effect on Mechanisms of Nutrient Uptake.- a) Uptake Rates.- b) Energy Metabolism.- c) Uptake of Humic Substances.- d) Membrane Properties.- 6. Role of Humic Substances as Natural Chelates.- 7. Conclusions.- References.- III. Selected Topics of Polyketide Biosynthesis.- 1. Introduction.- 2. 6-Methylsalicylic Acid and Orsellinic Acid.- 3. Melleine, Aspyrone, and Related Compounds.- 4. Nectriapyrone and Related Pyrones.- 5. Harzianolide.- 6. Dihydrogladiolic Acid.- 7. Spicifernin.- References.- IV. Photosynthesis Carbon Metabolism: The Chloroplast’s Sesquicentenary, and Some Thoughts on the Limits to Plant Productivity.- 1. Introduction.- 2. New Locations and Pathways.- 3. Uptake of Inorganic Carbon.- 4. Events In and On the Chloroplast.- a) The Calvin Cycle.- b) RuBP Carboxylase.- c) Other Calvin Cycle Enzymes.- d) Starch Metabolism.- e) Envelope Transporters.- f) Photoinhibition.- g) The Mehler Reaction, and Photorespiration.- 5. Mitochondrial Respiration.- 6. Sucrose Biosynthesis.- 7. C4 Metabolism.- a) C4 plants.- b) C3-C4 Intermediate Plants.- c) Crassulacean Acid Metabolism.- d) PEP Carboxylase and Malate Dehydrogenase.- 8. The Limits to Plant Productivity.- a) CO2.- b) Water.- c) Light.- d) Determinants of Photosynthetic Rate.- References.- V. Plant Stress. The Adaptive Potential of Dynamic Systems..- 1. Introduction.- 2. Morphological Plasticity of Achillea Genotypes and Environment..- 3. Epigenetic Processes and Metabolic Plasticity.- 4. Gene Potential and Metabolic Adaptibility.- 5. Metabolic Network Organization and Flux Control.- a) Towards a Quantitative Concept.- ?) The Michaelis-Menten Formalism.- ?) The Elasticity Coefficient.- ?) Rate Equation of a Metabolic Reaction Sequence.- b) Flux Control of Metabolic Sequences Under Stationary Flow..- 6. External Environment and Metabolic Parameter Structure.- 7. Environmentally Induced Parameter Changes Which Are Cell Water-Mediated.- 8. Water Perturbation-Mediated Metabolic Switching.- 9. Primary Responses in Solute-Perturbed Plant Cells.- 10. Uncovering Metabolic Perturbations.- 11. Bifurcations: a Particular Type of Metabolic Network Switching..- 12. The Transport-Catalysis Switch.- 13. The “Environmental Cusp”.- References.- VIa. Photochrome.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Photomorphogenesis and Photoperiodism.- 3. Ecological Significance of Phytochrome Responses.- 4. At Least Two Types of Phytochromes Regulate Plant Development.- 5. Phytochrome B Is Involved in Most Photoresponses of Etiolated and De-etiolated Plants.- 6. Phytochrome A Mediates the HIR Responses.- 7. Phytochrome Structure.- 8. Phytochrome Synthesis and Assembly.- 9. Signal Transduction May Involve.- a Dephosphorylation-Phosphorylation Cascade.- 10. Moss Phytochrome Is a Light-Regulated Protein Kinase.- 11. G Proteins and Further Components of the Phytochrome Signal Transduction Chain Controlling Gene Expression..- 12. Regulation of Photogene Transcription by DNA-Binding Proteins..- 13. Photomodulations.- 14. Intracellular Localization of Phytochrome.- 15. Phytochrome Interactions with the Blue-Light/UV-A Photoreceptor.- a) Characteristics of the Blue-Light Photoreceptor (Cryptochrome).- b) Interactions of the BL Receptor and Phytochrome in Seed Plants.- c) Interactions of the BL Receptor and Phytochrome in Lower Plants.- References.- VIb. Movement of Pulvinated Leaves.- 1. Introduction (Phenomenology, Terminology).- 2. Mechanisms of Motor Cell Swelling and Shrinking.- a) Hydrogen Ion Transport.- b) K+ Transport.- c) Cl- and Malate.- d) Ion Channels.- e) Membrane Potential.- 3. Biochemistry of Leaf Movement.- a) Basic Carbon Pathways.- b) Metabolite Pools.- c) Carbohydrates and Leaf Movement.- d) Energy Metabolism.- 4. Phototransduction.- a) Photoreceptors.- b) Light-Stimulated Phosphatidylinositol Turnover.- c) Ca2+.- 5. Leaf Movements as Hands of Biological Clocks.- a) Circadian Rhythms in Protoplasts of Pulvinar Motor Cells.- b) Involvement of K+ Channels and of the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPases in the Control and Generation of the Biological Clocks..- c) Treatments Affecting Clock-Mediated Leaf Movements.- 6. Ecological Implementations of Phototropic Movements.- a) Water Availability.- b) Nitrogen Availability.- c) Leaf Temperature.- d) Organismic Interaction.- References.- C. Genetics.- I. Replication: The Role of Escherichia coli Heat Shock Proteins in DNA Replication.- 1. Introduction.- a) Molecular Chaperones and the Heat Shock Response.- b) Heat Shock Proteins Are Involved in DNA Replication.- 2. Regulation of the Initiation of Plasmid Replication.- 3. Heat Shock Proteins Activate Replication of the Prophage P1 and F Plasmid.- a) Bacteriophage P1.- b) Plasmid F.- 4. Initiation of DNA Replication at ori? and oriC.- 5. Conclusions.- References.- II. Recombination: Sexual Reproduction in Plants: Self-Incompatibility as a Mechanism Promoting Outbreeding and Gene Flow.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Self-Incompatibility Systems in Angiosperms.- 3. The Genetic Basis of Self-Incompatibility.- 4. Self-Incompatibility and Its Effects on Gene Flow.- 5. The Molecular Basis of Self-Incompatibility.- a) The Molecular Basis of Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility.- b) The Molecular Basis of Sporophytic Self-Incompatibility.- 6. Self-Incompatibility Systems in Angiosperms and Mating Type Factors in Fungi: Different Means to the Same End.- 7. Conspectus.- References.- III. Mutation: Modified Starch Metabolism in Mutant and Transgenic Plants.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Starch Structures.- 3. Metabolic Pathways for Starch Synthesis.- 4. Mutants.- a) Shrunken-2.- b) Brittle-2.- c) rb.- d) adg-l:adg-2.- e) Waxy.- f) Shrunken.- g) st-3.- h) Dull.- i) Sugary.- j) Sugary-2.- k) Rugosus.- 1) Amylose extender.- m) Floury.- n) White core.- o) Risø.- 5. Transgenic Studies.- a) Expression of E.coli ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase in Potato..- b) Inhibition of ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase in Potato Using an Antisense ADP-G-PP Gene Coding for the Small Subunit.- c) Expression of an Antisense Gene for Potato Granule-Bound Starch Synthase in Potato.- d) Expression of an Antisense Gene for Cassava Granule-Bound Starch Synthase in Potato.- 6. Prospects.- References.- IV. Function: Histones in Higher Plants.- 1. Introduction: The Fundamental Role of Histones.- 2. Structure and Organization of Histone Genes.- a) The Inner Core Histones: H3 and H4.- b) The Outer Core Histones: H2a and H2b.- e) The Linker Histone H1.- ?) General Structure.- ?) Hl Gene Organization.- ?) Phenotypic Modulations by Histone H1.- 3. Production of Histones.- a) Replication-Dependent Histone Genes.- b) Replacement Histone Genes.- c) Tissue-Specific Histone Genes.- 4. Function of Histones.- a) General Inhibition of Gene Activity.- b) Activation of Gene Activity.- c) Fine Modulation of Genetic Activity Through Histone Modifications.- d) Regulation of Gene Activity Through Histone H1.- 5. Conclusions.- References.- V. Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Yeast Linear Killer Plasmids as a Tool in Genetic Engineering.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Structure and Function.- a) Detection and Localization.- b) Genomic Organization.- c) Replication.- d) Expression of ORFs.- 3. Phenotypic Manifestation.- a) The Killer Phenotype.- b) Structure of the Toxin and Mode of Action.- c) Transfer into Other Yeasts.- 4. Vector Construction.- a) Circular Vectors.- b) Linear Vectors.- 5. Application.- a) Functional Analysis of Cytoplasmic ORFs.- b) Analysis of Yeast Telomeric Sequences.- c) Heterologous Gene Expression.- d) Conclusions.- References.- D. Taxonomy.- I. Systematics of the Bryophytes.- 1. General Aspects.- 2. Morphology, Anatomy.- 3. Chemotaxonomy.- 4. Systematics and Evolution.- 5. Floristics.- 6. Geography.- 7. Ecology.- References.- II. Paleobotany of Land Plants.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Systematics.- a) Embryophytes.- b) Tracheophytes.- c) Lycophytes.- d) Ferns.- e) Sphenopsids.- f) Early Seed Plants.- g) Cycads.- h) Pteridosperms.- i) Ginkgos.- j) Cordaitopsids and Coniferopsids.- k) Anthophytes.- 3. Discussion.- References.- E. Geobotany.- I. Plant Geography.- 1. Taxonomic and Floristic Foundation of Plant Geography.- a) New Floras.- b) Plant Distribution Mapping.- c) Chorology of Critical Taxa.- 2. Differentiation of Taxa in Time and Space.- a) Reconstruction of Migration on the Base of Recent Distribution.- b) Evidence from Fossils.- 3. Factors of Distribution.- a) Climatic Factors.- b) Dispersal and Distribution.- 4. Man’s Impact on Plant Distribution.- a) Spread of Invaders.- b) Urban Floras.- c) The Proportion of Status Groups in Different Floras.- d) Distribution, Extinction, and Conservation.- 5. Analyses of Floras and Classification of Distribution Patterns..- 6. Phytogeographic Subdivision of the Continents and Endemism.- References.- II. Salt Resistance in Herbaceous Halophytes and Mangroves.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Terminolgy.- a) Halophytes, Nonhalophytes.- b) Salt Tolerance, Salt Resistance.- 3. Salt Regulation.- a) Salt Exclusion.- ?) Salt Excluders, Salt Includers.- ?) Salt Exclusion from the Xylem.- ?) Salt Exclusion from the Leaves.- b) Elimination.- ?) Salt Glands and Bladder Hairs.- ?) Retranslocation.- c) Succulence.- 4. Components of Salt Tolerance.- a) Transport and Compartmentation of Ions.- ?) Membrane Composition.- ?) Ion Channels.- ?) Na+/H+ Antiporters.- ?) H+-ATPases.- b) Compatible Solutes.- 5. Outlook.- References.- F. Special Topics.- I. Mycorrhizae: Ectomycorrhiza and Ectendomycorrhiza.- 1. Ectomycorrhiza.- a) Symbiotic Organisms and Morphology/Anatomy of the Symbiotic Organs.- ?) Detailed Descriptions of Ectomyeorrhizae, Including Keys.- ?) Comprehensive Descriptions of Selected Ectomycorrhizae.- ?) Unidentified Ectomycorrhizae Named Binomially.- ?) Verification of Ectomycorrhizal Nature of Fungi, Including Short Descriptions.- ?) Unusual ‘Ectomycorrhizae’.- ?) Strain Variability of Fungi Regarding Ectomycorrhiza Formation.- ?) Verification of Ectomycorrhizal Nature of Some Selected Plants.- ?) Influence of Tree Clones on Ectomycorrhiza Formation..- b) Ontogeny and Ultrastructure.- c) Protein Pattern, Pigments.- d) Nucleic Acid Researches.- e) Physiology.- ?) Germination of Spores.- ?) Substances Assumed to be Important for Formation of Ectomycorrhizae.- Hormones.- Phenolics.- ?) Recognition (cf. also Sect. I f ?).- ?) Enzymes.- ?) Carbon Nutrition of Ectomycorrhizae.- ?) Growth Responses of Plants.- ?) Phosphate Nutrition.- ?) Nitrogen Nutrition (cf. also Sect. Is).- ?) Micronutrients.- ?) Water.- f) Ecology.- ?) Host Specificity (cf. also Sect. I e ?).- ?) Ecological Laboratory Research.- ?) Researches in Natural Habitats.- ?) Coexistence with Other Organisms.- Saprophytic and Parasitic Fungi.- Ectomycorrhizal Fungi.- Bacteria.- Animals.- Plants.- ?) Influence by Man.- Fertilization with Lime or Nitrogen (cf. also I e kappa)...- Pesticides.- Pollution.- Acidification.- Effects of Ozone (and S02).- Effects of Nitrogen.- Greenhouse Effect.- Effects of Toxic Metals.- Other Toxic Substances.- Damage to Trees.- Afforestation, Clear-Cut, Application.- g) Methods.- h) Reviews.- 2. Ectendomycorrhiza.- 3. Some Highlights of This Report Period.- References.- II. Symbioses: Mycorrhizae.- 1. VA-Mycorrhizae.- a) Taxonomy of Endophytes.- b) Physiology and Effects on Plants.- c) Ecology.- d) Practical Applications.- 2. Ericales-Mycorrhizae.- 3. Orchidaceae-Mycorrhizae.- References.

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