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Life Sciences - Plant Sciences | Fungal Strategies of Wood Decay in Trees

Fungal Strategies of Wood Decay in Trees

Schwarze, Francis W.M.R., Engels, Julia, Mattheck, Claus

Translated by Linnard, W.

Original German edition published by Rombach Verlag, Freiburg, 1999

Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2000, XV, 185 p.

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  • Numerous colour illustrations elucidate the most conspicuous features associated with the decay fungi
  • The first book that does not only allow to identify the decay fungus, but also describes the specific interactions with the host
  • A must for each arboriculturist and tree biologist
Wood-destroying fungi play an important role in nature, because they are the only forms of life capable of reducing wood to its initial constituents. However, they can also be dangerous for people and property, as they can impair the stability and fracture-safety of trees.
This book gives detailed information, based on new and original scientfic findings, on the examination and effects of the most important species of fungi associated with failure of infected urban trees. In addition, new ways are presented for predicting the advance of decay in the living tree. The subject is illustrated and made easily accessible by numerous colored photos of fungus fruit bodies, defect symptoms, and macroscopic and microscopic pictures of wood decay. A detailed introduction to the fundamentals of wood pathology provides a way into the subjects of applied mycology and tree care for readers without previous special knowledge. Francis W.M.R. Schwarze, National Diploma of Arboriculture at Merrist Wood College, UK (1991), Master of Science in Pure, Applied Plant and Fungal Taxonomy, University of Reading, UK (1992), doctorate at Freiburg University (1995), since 1996 assistant at the Institute for Forest Botany and Tree Physiology at Freiburg University, concentrating on research into wood-destroying fungi and host-fungus interactions.
Julia Engels, Diploma Forester at Freiburg University (1995), doctorate on root fungi at Freiburg University (1998). Since 1998 active in tree care and mycology in Luxembourg.
Claus Mattheck, born 1947, doctorate in theoretical physics (1973), qualified as lecturer on damage studies at Karlsruhe University (1985), and now teaches there as Professor. Since 1991 he has been an officially appointed and attested expert on tree mechanics and fracture behaviour. Has been awarded numerous prizes for research and publication. Head of the Biomechanics Department at the Karlsruhe Research Centre.

Content Level » Professional/practitioner

Keywords » Baumpflege - Bäume - Holzpathologie - Holzzersetzung - Pilze - Trees - arboriculture - forest pathology - fruit - fungi - mycology - translation - wood degration - wood pathology

Related subjects » Agriculture - Forestry - Microbiology - Nature Conservation & Biodiversity - Paleoenvironmental Sciences - Plant Sciences

Table of contents 

1 Introduction.- 2 Fundamental Aspects.- Wood Anatomy.- Structure of the Lignified Cell Wall.- Middle Lamella.- Primary Wall.- Secondary Wall.- New Information on the Structure of the S2 Layer.- Mechanical Model for Wood.- Types of Wood Decay.- Brown Rot.- White Rots: the Whole Spectrum of Diversity.- White Rot.- White Rot: Selective Delignification.- White Rot: Simultaneous Rot.- Soft Rot.- Soft Rot in Living Trees Caused by an Ascomycete.- Basidiomycetes as Facultative Soft-Rotters.- 3 Examination, Importance and Mechanical Effects of Wood-Decay Fungi in the Living Trees.- Fungus Identification.- Basidiomycetes.- Ascomycetes.- Differentiation and Asexual Reproduction of Mycelium.- Classification of Wood-Decay Fungi According to Their Main Occurrence in the Tree.- Colonization Strategies of Stem-Decaying Fungi.- Colonization Strategies of Root-Decaying Fungi.- Number of Fungal Fruit Bodies and Their Predictive Value.- Fungus Species Which Invade the Stemwood as Well as the Roots.- Root Fungi Found Mainly Only in the Roots.- Wood-Decay Patterns Observable in the Roots.- Factors Influencing Wood Degradation.- Symptoms of Damage by Fungal Pathogens.- Symptoms of Damage by Stem and Root-Decaying Fungi.- Fungus-Host Combinations.- Fomes fomentarius.- Distribution and Hosts.- Fruit Bodies.- Possibilities of Misidentification.- Useful Information.- Appearance of the Decay.- Pattern of Wood Decay by Fomes fomentarius (on Beech and Oak).- Inonotus hispidus.- Distribution and Hosts.- Fruit Bodies.- Useful Information.- Appearance of the Decay.- Pattern of Wood Decay by Inonotus hispidus (on London Plane and Ash).- Laetiporus sulphureus.- Distribution and Hosts.- Fruit Bodies.- Useful Information.- Appearance of the Decay.- Pattern of Wood Decay by Laetiporus sulphureus (on Robinia and Oak).- Fistulina hepatica.- Distribution and Hosts.- Fruit Bodies.- Useful Information.- Appearance of the Decay.- Pattern of Wood Decay by Fistulina hepatica (on Oak).- Ustulina deusta.- Distribution and Hosts.- Fruit Bodies.- Useful Information.- Appearance of the Decay by Ustulina deusta.- Pattern of Wood Decay by Ustulina deusta (on Beech and Lime).- Polyporus squamosus.- Distribution and Hosts.- Fruit Bodies.- Useful Information.- Appearance of the Decay.- Pattern of Wood Decay by Polyporus squamosus (on Lime and London Plane).- Phellinus robustus.- Distribution and Hosts.- Fruit Bodies.- Possibilities of Misidentification.- Useful Information.- Appearance of the Decay.- Pattern of Wood Decay by Phellinus robustus (on Oak).- Fomitopsis pinicola.- Distribution and Hosts.- Fruit Bodies.- Useful Information.- Appearance of the Decay.- Pattern of Wood Decay by Fomitopsis pinicola (on Spruce and Beech).- Heterobasidion annosum.- Distribution and Hosts.- Fruit Bodies.- Possibilities of Misidentification.- Useful Information.- Appearance of the Decay.- Pattern of Wood Decay by Heterobasidion annosum (on Spruce and Pine).- Meripilus giganteus.- Distribution and Hosts.- Fruit Bodies.- Useful Information.- Appearance of the Decay.- Pattern of Wood Decay by Meripilus giganteus (on Beech and Lime).- Armillaria spp.- Distribution and Hosts.- Fruit Bodies.- Useful Information.- Appearance of the Decay.- Pattern of Wood Decay by Armillaria (Armillaria ostoyae on Spruce; Armillaria mellea on Maple).- Ganoderma spp.- Distribution and Hosts.- Fruit Bodies.- Useful Information.- Appearance of the Decay.- Pattern of Wood Decay by Ganoderma spp. (Ganoderma pfeifferi on Oak; Ganoderma applanatum on Broad-Leaved Lime).- Grifola frondosa.- Distribution and Hosts.- Fruit Bodies.- Useful Information.- Appearance of the Decay.- Pattern of Wood Decay by Grifola frondosa (on Oak).- Inonotus dryadeus.- Distribution and Hosts.- Fruit Bodies.- Useful Information.- Appearance of the Decay.- Pholiota squarrosa.- Distribution and Hosts.- Fruit Bodies.- Useful Information.- Appearance of the Decay.- 4 Host-Fungus Interactions: Development and Prognosis of Wood Decay in the Sapwood.- The CODIT Model.- Host Response Mechanisms in the Sapwood.- Different Response Mechanisms in Heartwood and Sapwood.- The Importance of Walls 1-3 from the Mycological Standpoint.- The Importance of Walls 1 -3 of the CODIT Model in Heartwood and Ripewood and Their Anatomical Interpretation.- The Importance of Walls 1-3 in Sapwood: the Reaction Zones.- Reaction Zone Penetration, as Exemplified by Inonotus hispidus.- Inonotus hispidus in a London Plane Tree 153.- Example of Strong Compartmentalization of Ustulina deusta in a Healthy Beech Tree.- Examples of Weak Compartmentalization of Ustulina deusta in a Weakened Beech Tree.- Ustulina deusta in Lime Trees.- The Behavior of Strong and Weak Compartmentalizers in the Host-Fungus Interaction.- Xylem Rays as the Tree’s Achilles Heel in Host-Fungus Interactions.- Cracks as’ Motorways’ for Fungi.- The Importance of the Barrier Zone (Wall 4).- Postscript.- References.

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