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Clusia is the only dicotyledonous tree genus with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), and in some cases all variants of CAM can be expressed in one given species. These unique features as well as Clusia's extreme flexibility have put it in the limelight of international research.
The studies presented in this volume embrace anatomy, morphology and plant architecture, phytogeographical distribution and community ecology, phylogeny and genetic diversity. They also cover physiology and metabolism, physiological ecology and functional diversity, circadian rhythmicity and biological timing.
Covering all aspects of tree biology, this richly illustrated volume is an invaluable source of information for any plant scientist.
Section I Background 1 Historical Recollections
Ulrich Lüttge 1.1 Namesakes: Carolus Clusius and Clusia 1.2 Alexander von Humboldt: The First Ecophysiological Studies of Clusia 1.3 The Discovery of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) in Clusia References Section II Phylogeny, Diversity and Ecology Introduction
Ulrich Lüttge References 2 Morphology, Anatomy, Life Forms and Hydraulic Architecture
Ulrich Lüttge and Heitor Monteiro Duarte 2.1 Hundreds of Species of One Morphotype 2.2 Leaf Anatomy 2.3 Life Forms 2.4 Hydraulic Architecture References 3 Biogeographic Features of Clusia, with Emphasis on South American and Especially Brazilian Species
Dorothy Sue Dunn de Araujo and Fabio Rubio Scarano 3.1 Introduction 3.2 The Survey 3.3 Patterns 3.4 Discussion 3.4.1 Why Are There So Many Species? 3.4.2 Why Are They Distributed the Way They Are? 3.4.3 Have They Always Occupied Their Current Distribution Patterns? 3.4.4 How Are These Biogeographic Patterns Affected by Man? References 4 Clusia as Nurse Plant
André Tavares Corrêa Dias and Fabio Rubio Scarano 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Restinga de Jurubatiba: Phytosociology 4.3 Evidences for Nurse Plant Effects 4.3.1 Association, Coexistence and Facilitation 4.3.2 Gender and Ontogenetic Variation 4.3.3 Structural Equation Modelling (SEM): Mechanisms Behind the Nursing Effect 4.4 Conclusions References 5 Reproductive Biology
Rodrigo Lemes Martins, Tânia Wendt, Rogério Margis, and Fabio Rubio Scarano 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Main Reproductive Features 5.2.1 Dioecy 5.2.2Resin 5.2.3 Automimetism and Mistake Pollination 5.2.4 Asexual Reproduction: Agamospermy and Vegetative Propagation 5.3 The Case of Clusia hilariana 5.3.1 Automimicry in Clusia hilariana 5.3.2 Effects of Population Spatial Distribution in Fruit Set 5.3.3 The Effects of Local Vegetation Cover on Fruit Set 5.3.4 Population Genetics 5.3.5 Clusia hilariana: A Synthesis of Ongoing Studies 5.4 Final Remarks References 6 Diversity, Phylogeny and Classification of Clusia
Mats H. G. Gustafsson, Klaus Winter, and Volker Bittrich 6.1 Taxonomic Position and Delimitation 6.2 Molecular Phylogenetics 6.2.1 Combining Published ITS Sequences in a New Analysis 6.2.2 Character Optimizations 6.3 Species Diversity and Distribution 6.4 Habitats and Habits 6.5 Morphological Diversity 6.6 Ecophysiological Variation 6.7 Variation in Biological Interactions 6.8 Phylogeny and Sectional Classification 6.8.1 Section Anandrogyne Planch. & Triana 6.8.2 Clusia sect. Retinostemon Planch. & Triana and Relatives 6.8.3 Clusia sect. Clusiastrum Planch. & Triana 6.8.4 Clusia sect. Cordylandra Planch. & Triana 6.8.5 Clusia sections Clusia and Omphalanthera Planch. & Triana, and Related 6.8.6 Clusia sect. Phloianthera Planch. & Triana 6.8.7 Clusia sect. Chlamydoclusia Engl. 6.8.8 Clusia sect. Oedematopus (Planch. & Triana) Pipoly, and Relatives 6.9 Key Innovations in the Diversification of Clusia References 7 Population Biology of Different Clusia Species in the State of Rio de Janeiro
Anja Vaasen, Fabio Rubio Scarano, and Rüdiger Hampp 7.1