Jensen, Dan Funck, Jansson, Hans-Börje, Tronsmo, Arne (Eds.)
1996, XVI, 171 p.
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Microorganisms, including those genetically modified (GMOs), are increasingly being released deliberately into the environment for different purposes. One major interest is the use of antagonistic organisms for biological control of pests and plant diseases. Both in the development of biocontrol agents and their later risk assessment and product approval, there is a need for methods that facilitate monitoring of such introduced microorganisms. This book particularly addresses the various approaches for monitoring introduced fungi and the current status of techniques which may be relevant to use are described. Such techniques include marker genes and other DNA-based techniques, serology using polyclonals or monoclonals, the use of enzymes or secondary metabolite profiles, and `electronic noses' as well as more traditional methods like dilution plating.
Content Level »Research
Keywords »Fungi - development - growth - pea - plant - plants - roots - soil
Monitoring of antagonistic fungi. Perspectives, needs and legislation.- Fungal Ecology.- Some aspects of fungal ecology.- Quantification of fungal growth in the environment.- Population growths and survival of Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma virens in sphagnum peat.- Occurrence of Gliocladium roseum on barley roots in sand and field soil.- Use of a metalaxyl tolerant Pythium oligandrum isolate for selectively following its population in soil and its colonization of roots of diseased and non-diseased plants.- Recovery and detection of deuteromycete conidia from soil.- The prevalence of Fusarium solani in wrinkled and roundseeded pea genotypes.- Release of a cord-forming basidiomycete antagonistic to Heterobasidion annosum and its subsequent reisolation and identification.- Methods to quantify nematophagus fungi in soil: Microscopy or GUS gene activity.- Monitoring of a GUS transformed strain of Trichoderma harzianum in soil and rhizosphere.- Monitoring growth of Bipolaris sorokiniana in plant tissue using GUS (?-glucuronidase) as a marker.- Secondary Metabolites and Enzymes.- Identification of fungi by secondary metabolites.- Prehelminthosporol, a Phytotoxin from Bipolaris sorokiniana.- Monitoring the activity of different Trichoderma isolates by the isoelectric points (pI) of their extracellular enzymes.- DNA-Technioues.- PCR-based methods — a promising tool for detection and identification of fungi in soil.- Identification and characterization of isolates of Trichoderma and Gliocladium by PCR-based methods.- Identification of nematode-trapping fungi of the genus Arthrobotrys using RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified rDNA.- Cloning and characterization of Trichoderma harzianum genes induced during growth on Rhizoctonia solani cell walls.- Serological Methods.- Development of immunoassays for the detection and quantification of fungi.- Development of monoclonal antibody-based immunoassays for the quantification of Rhizoctonia solani and Trichoderma harzianum in soil.- Group Discussion in Plenum.- Non disruptive in situ detection methods.- Techniques for monitoring Trichoderma in the phyllosphere.