Plant hormones play a crucial role in controlling the way in which plants growand develop. Whilemetabolism providesthepowerand buildingblocks for plant life, it is the hormones that regulate the speed of growth of the individual parts and integrate these parts to produce the form that we recognize as a plant. In addition, theyplayacontrolling role inthe processes of reproduction. This book is a description ofthese natural chemicals: how they are synthesizedand metabolized; howthey work; whatwe knowoftheir molecular biology; how we measure them; and a description ofsome ofthe roles they play in regulating plant growth and development. Emphasis has also been placed on the new findings on plant hormones deriving from the expanding use ofmolecular biology as a tool to understand these fascinating regulatory molecules. Even at the present time, when the role of genes in regulating all aspects of growth and development is considered of prime importance, it is still clear that the path of development is nonetheless very much under hormonal control, either via changes in hormone levels in response to changes in gene transcription, or with the hormones themselves as regulators ofgene transcription. This is not a conference proceedings, but a selected collection ofnewly written, integrated, illustrated reviews describing our knowledge of plant hormones, and the experimental work that is the foundation of this knowledge.
A: Introduction. 1. The plant hormones: Their nature, occurrence, and functions; P.J. Davies. 2. The plant hormone concept: Concentration, and sensitivity and transport; P.J. Davies. B: Hormone Synthesis and Metabolism. 1. Auxin biosynthesis and metabolism; R.S. Bandurski, J.D. Cohen, J. Slovin, D.M. Reinecke. 2. Gibberellin biosynthesis and metabolism; V.M. Sponsel. 3.Cytokinin biosynthesis and metabolism; B.A. McGaw. 4. Biosynthesis and metabolism of ethylene; T.A. McKeon, J.C. Fernandez-Maculet, S.F. Yang. 5. Abscisic acid biosynthesis and metabolism; D.C. Walton. C: Other Hormonal Compounds. 1. Polyamines as endogenous growth regulators; A.W. Galston, R. Kaur-Sawhney. 2. Jasmonates, salicylic acid and brassinosteroids; P.E. Staswick, I. Raskin, R.N. Arteca. D: How Hormones Work. 1. Auxin and cell elongation; R.E. Cleland. 2. The control of gene expression by auxin; G. Hagen. 3. Gibberellin action in germinating cereal grains; J.V. Jacobsen, F. Gubler, P.M. Chanderl. 4. Hormone binding and signal transduction; K.R. Libbenga, A.M. Mennes. 5. Calcium and plant hormone action; P.C. Bethke, S. Gilroy, R.L. Jones. E: Molecular Aspects of Hormone Synthesis and Action. 1. Genes specifying auxin and cytokinin biosynthesis in prokaryotes; R.O. Morris. 2. Transgenic plants in hormone biology; H.J. Klee, M.B. Lanahan. 3. Biochemical and genetic approaches to study the mechanism of action of auxins; J. Schell, K. Palme, R. Walden. 4. Ethylene genes and fruit ripening; S. Picton, J.E. Gray, D. Grierson. 5. The role of hormones in gene activation in response to wounding; H. Pena-Cortes, L. Willmitzer. F: Hormone Analysis. 1.Instrumental methods of plant hormone analysis; R. Horgan. 2. Immunoassay methods of plant hormone analysis; J.L. Caruso, V.C. Pence, L.A. Leverone. G: The Functioning of Hormones in Plant Growth and Development. 1. Hormone mutants and plant development; J.B. Reid, S.H. Howell. 2. Ethylene in plant growth, development, and senescence; M.S. Reid. 3. Auxin transport; T.L. Lomax, G.K. Muday, P.H. Rubery. 4. The induction of vcascular tissues by auxin; R. Aloni. 5. Hormones and the orientation of growth; P.B. Kaufman, L-L. Wu, T.G. Brock, D. Kim. 6. Hormonal regulation of apical dominance; I.A. Tamas. 7. Hormones as regulators of water balance; T.A. Mansfield, M.R. McAinsh. 8. Hormones and reproductive development; J.D. Metzger. 9. The role of hormones in photosynthate partitioning and seed filling; M.L. Brenner, N. Cheikh. 10. The role of hormones during seed development; C.D. Rock, R.S. Quatrano. 11. The role of hormones in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuberization; E.E. Ewing. 12. Postharvest hormone changes in vegetables and fruit; P.M. Ludford. 13. Hormones in tissue culture and micropropagation; A.D. Krikorian. 14. Natural and synthetic growth regulators and their use in horticultural and agronomic crops; T.J. Gianfagna.