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Woody plants belong to various taxonomic groups, which are heterogeneous in morphology, physiology, and geographic distribution. OtheJWise, they have neither strong evolutionruy relationships nor share a conunon habitat. They are a primaIy source of fiber and timber, and also include many edible fruit species. Their unique phenotypic behavior includes a perennial habit associated with extensive secondary growth. Additional characteristics of woody plants include: developmental juvenility and maturity with respect to growth habit, flowering time, and morphogenetic response in tissue cultures; environmental control of bud dormancy and flowering cycles; variable tolerance to abiotic stresses, wounding and pathogens; and long distance transport of water and IRltrients. Woody plants, particularly tree species, have been the focus of numerous physiological studies to understand their specialized functions, however, only recently they have become the target of molecular studies. Recent advances in our understanding of signal transduction pathways for environmental responses in herbaceous plants, including the identification and cloning of genes for proteins involved in signal transduction. should provide useful leads to undertake parallel studies with woody plants. Molecular mapping techniques, coupled with the availability of cloned genes from herbaceous plants, should provide shortcuts to cloning relevant genes from woody plants. The unique phenotypes of these plants can then be targeted for improvement through genetic engineering.
Section A. 1. Gene transfer techniques and their relevance to woody plants; S.C. Minocha, J.C. Wallace. 2. Selection of marker-free transgenics plants using the oncogenes (ipt, rol A, B, C) of Agrobacterium as selectable markers; H. Ebinuma, et al. 3. Agrobacterium rhizogenes for rooting recalcitrant woody species; H.M. Haggman, T.S. Aronen. 4. Genetic engineering of conifers for plantation forestry Pinus radiata transformation; C. Walter, L.J. Grace. 5. Transformation of Picea species; D.H. Clapham, et al. 6. Transgenic in Larix; M.A. Lelu, G. Pilate. 7. Genetic transformation of Populus toward improving plant performance and drought tolerance; T. Tzfira, et al. 8. Progress on genetic engineering in four tropical Acacia spp.; M. Quoirin, et al. 9. Genetic engineering of rose (Rosa species); M.R. Davey, et al. 10. Transformation of Actinidia species (kiwifruit); E. Rugini, et al. 11. Genetic transformation in Citrus; G.A. Moore, et al. 12. Olive (Olea europaea var. sativa) transformation; E. Rugini. 13. Transformation of Malus; F.A. Hammerschlag. 14. Genetic transformation of Hevea brasiliensis (rubber trees) and its applications towards crop improvement and production of recombinant proteins of commercial value; P. Arokiaraj. 15. Production of Transgenic oil palm (Elaeis guinensis JACQ.). using biolistic techniques; G. Kadir, A. Parveez. Section B. 16. Molecular characterization of the mycorrhizas of woody plants; S. Hambleton, R.S. Currah. 17. Molecular epidemiology tree pathogens; R.C. Hamelin. 18. Development of insect resistance in fruit and nut tree crops; M. Escob, A.M. Dandekar. 19. Structural and biochemical aspects of cold hardiness in woody plants; M. Wisniewski, R. Arora. 20. Herbicide tolerant forest trees; D.J. Llewellyn. 21. Cloning of defense related genes against pathogens in forest trees; G. Lakshmi Sita, et al. Section C. 22. Research Ethics for Molecular Silviculture; P.B. Thompson, S.H. Strauss.