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Life Sciences - Ecology | Anoxia - Evidence for Eukaryote Survival and Paleontological Strategies

Anoxia

Evidence for Eukaryote Survival and Paleontological Strategies

Altenbach, Alexander, Bernhard, Joan M., Seckbach, Joseph (Eds.)

2012, XXXVI, 648 p.

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  • Reveals eukaryotic strategies in anoxic environments
  • Includes cutting-edge research, data and hypotheses never before published
  • Offers also fundamental introductions, overviews and an exhaustive collection of literature for advanced studies

ANOXIA defines the lack of free molecular oxygen in an environment. In the presence of organic matter, the metabolism of anaerobic prokaryotes soon produces compounds such as free radicals, hydrogen sulfide, or methane that are typically toxic to aerobes. The concomitance of suppressed respiration and the presence of toxic substances suggests that these habitats are inhospitable to eukaryotes. Ecological definitions thus sometimes term these environments 'Death Zones'. In this book, however, we present a collection of remarkable adaptations to anoxia, observed in protists, fungi, plants and animals. Presented are case studies that provide evidence for controlled beneficial use of anoxia by, for example, organic modification of free radicals, use of alternative electron donors for anaerobic metabolic pathways, and employment of anaerobic symbionts. Marine, freshwater, and terrestrial organisms and habitats are considered. Ecological, cell biological, and physiological studies are included. In addition to these biologically oriented chapters, the book also presents a paleontological perspective by discussing indirect and direct evidence of eukaryote survival in ancient times. For example, the complex and often interwoven existence of oxic and anoxic milieus in space and time is also highlighted. Finally, we revisit the idea that eukaryotic inhabitation of anoxic habitats was established early in Earth history. This book will certainly increase your concepts regarding abilities of EUKARYOTA.

Content Level » Upper undergraduate

Keywords » Anaerobes - Anoxia - Ecology and Paleontology - Eukaryotes - Hypoxia

Related subjects » Earth System Sciences - Ecology - Geology - Microbiology - Paleoenvironmental Sciences

Table of contents 

Introduction, Joseph Seckbach. Stepping into the book of Eukaryotes and Anoxia,  Alexander Altenbach, Joan Bernhard, Joseph Seckbach. List of Authors and their Addresses. List of External Reviewers and Referees. Acknowledgment to authors, reviewers and any special people who assisted.
PART I: GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Anaerobic eukaryotes, Tom Fenchel. Biogeochemical reactions in marine sediments underlying anoxic water bodies, Tina Treude. Diversity of anaerobic prokaryotes and eukaryotes – breaking long-established dogmas, Aharon Oren.
PART II: FUNCTIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY
The biochemical adaptations of mitochondrion-related organelles of parasitic and free-living microbial eukaryotes to low oxygen environments, Anastasios Tsaousis et al. Hydrogenosomes and mitosomes: mitochondrial adaptations to life in anaerobic environments, Rob De Graaf and Johannes Hackstein. Adapting to hypoxia: lessons from vascular endothelial growth factor, Nina and Andy Levy.
PART III: MANAGING ANOXIA
Magnetotactic protists at the oxic-anoxic transition zones of coastal aquatic environments, Dennis A. Bazylinski et al. A novel ciliate (Ciliophora: Hypotrichida) isolated from bathyal anoxic sediments, David J. Baudoin et al. The wood-eating termite hindgut: diverse cellular symbioses in a microoxic to anoxic environment, Michael F. Dolan. Ecological and experimental exposure of insects to anoxia reveals suprising tolerance, William W. Hoback. The unusual response of encysted embryos of the animal extremophile, Artemia franciscana, to prolonged anoxia, James S. Clegg. Survival of tardigrades in extreme environments – a model animal for astrobiology, Daiki Horikawa. Long-term anoxia-tolerance in flowering plants, Robert M.M. Crawford.
PART IV: FORAMINIFERA
Benthic Foraminifera: inhabitants of low-oxygen environments, Karoliina Koho and Elisa Piña-Ochoa. Ecological and biological response of benthic Foraminifera under oxygen-depleted conditions: evidence from laboratory approaches, Petra Heinz and Emmanuele Geslin. The response of benthic Foraminifera to low-oxygen conditions of the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone, Jürgen Mallon et al. Benthic foraminiferal communities and microhabitat selection on the continental shelf off central Peru, Jorge Cardich et al.

PART V: ZONES AND REGIONS
Living assemblages from the “Dead Zone” and naturally occurring hypoxic zones, Kurt R. Buck et al. The return of shallow shelf seas as extreme environments: Anoxia and macrofauna reactions in the northern Adriatic Sea, Michael Stachowitsch et al. Meiobenthos of the oxic/anoxic interface in the south-western region of the Black Sea: abundance and taxonomic composition, Nelli G. Sergeeva et al. The role of eukaryotes in the anaerobic food web of stratified lakes, Alessandro Saccà. The anoxic Framvaren fjord as a model system to study protistan diversity and evolution, Thorsten Stoeck and Anke Behnke. Characterizing an anoxic habitat: sulphur bacteria in a meromictic alpine lake, Giesela Fritz et al. Ophel, the newly discovered hypoxic chemolitho-autotrophic groundwater biome - a window to ancient animal life, Franzis Dov Por. Microbial eukaryotes in the marine subsurface? Virginia P. Edgcomb and Jennifer Biddle.
PART VI: MODERN ANALOGS AND TEMPLATES FOR EARTH HISTORY
On the use of stable nitrogen isotopes in present and past anoxic environments, Ulrich Struck. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic fractionation in Foraminifera: possible signatures from anoxia, Alexander V. Altenbach et al. The functionality of pores in benthic Foraminifera in view of bottom water oxygenation. A review, Nicolaas Glock et al. Anoxia-dysoxia at the sediment-water interface of the southern Tethys in the late Cretaceous: Mishash formation, southern Israel, Ahuva Almogi-Labin. Styles of agglutination in benthic Foraminifera from modern Santa Barbara basin sediments and the implications of finding fossil analogs in Devonian and Mississippian black shales, Jürgen Schieber. Did redox conditions trigger test templates in Proterozoic Foraminifera? Alexander V. Altenbach and Maren Gaulke. The relevance of anoxic and agglutinated benthic Foraminifera to the possible Archean evolution of eukaryotes, Wladyslaw Altermann et al.
PART VII: FINALS.

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