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Life Sciences - Ecology | Rainforest Ecosystems of East Kalimantan - El Niño, Drought, Fire and Human Impacts

Rainforest Ecosystems of East Kalimantan

El Niño, Drought, Fire and Human Impacts

Series: Ecological Studies, Vol. 140

Guhardja, E., Fatawi, M., Sutisna, M., Mori, T., Ohta, S. (Eds.)

2000, XXVIII, 332 p.

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Since the late 1960s the Indonesian state of East Kalimantan has witnessed a marked increase in the impact of human activities chiefly commercial logging and agricultural exploitation. Located on the island of Borneo, East Kalimantan also was subjected to prolonged droughts and extensive wildfires in 1982-83 and 1997-98 that were linked to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. The changes in the rainforest ecosystem in East Kalimantan during this 15-year cycle of severe ENSO events are the subject of this book. With an eye toward development of rehabilitation techniques for sustainable forest management, the authors examine possible interactive effects of drought, fire, and human impacts on the flora and fauna of the area.

Content Level » Research

Keywords » Flora - Rain - Rainforest - Silviculture - Southern Oscillation - ecosystem - environment - fauna - forest - forest management - forestry - logging - temperature - tree - vegetation

Related subjects » Agriculture - Atmospheric Sciences - Ecology - Forestry - Nature Conservation & Biodiversity - Paleoenvironmental Sciences

Table of contents 

1: Introduction.- 1 Description of Forests and Forestry in East Kalimantan.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Forest Flora and Fauna in East Kalimantan.- 1.3 Forestry Activity.- 1.4 Forest Conversion and Human Activity.- 1.5 Concluding Remark.- 2 Climate in Bukit Soeharto, East Kalimantan.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 General Characteristics.- 2.3 Rainfall.- 2.4 Microclimate.- 2.5 Conclusion.- 3 Effects of Droughts and Forest Fires on Dipterocarp Forest in East Kalimantan.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Cause of Forest Fires in 1998.- 3.3 What the Fires Did to the Forests.- 3.4 Recovery of the Forest Vegetation.- 3.5 Conclusion.- 2: Soil Characteristics and Human Impacts.- 4 Are Soils in Degraded Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems Deteriorated? A Comparison of Imperata Grasslands, Degraded Secondary Forests, and Primary Forests.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Study Area, Vegetation and Soils.- 4.3 Chemical Properties.- 4.4 Conclusion.- 5 Vertical Transportation of Chemical Elements Through Water Movement in Different Vegetation.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Sites.- 5.3 Change in Water Chemistry Along the Pathways in Different Vegetation.- 5.4 Fine Litter Fall and Its Chemical Composition.- 5.5 Annual Element Fluxes.- 5.6 Conclusion.- 6 Changes in Soil Nutrient Status After Abandonment of Swidden Agriculture at Benuaq Dayak Village.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Fallow Forests in the Mencimai Village Area.- 6.3 Changes in the Physio-Chemical Properties of Soil with Fallow Period.- 6.4 Changes in Nutrient Stock with Fallow Period.- 6.5 Conclusion.- 7 Serpentine Soils on Catena in the Southern Part of East Kalimantan, Indonesia.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Study Area and Soils.- 7.3 Chemical Properties.- 7.4 Soils on Serpentine Catena.- 7.5 Conclusion.- 8 Characteristics of Soils Developed on Volcanic Parent Materials in the Barong Tongkok Area.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Study Area.- 8.3 Morphology and Physico-Chemical Properties.- 8.4 Comparison with Soils on the Tertiary Deposits.- 8.5 Conclusion.- 3: Drought and Fire Impacts on Forest Ecosystems.- 9 Tree Species Composition of a Burned Lowland Dipterocarp Forest in Bukit Soeharto, East Kalimantan.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 The Large-scale Study Plot in Bukit Soeharto.- 9.3 Tree Density and Basal Area.- 9.4 Species Composition.- 9.5 Conclusion.- 10 Dynamics of Burned Lowland Dipterocarp Forest Stands in Bukit Soeharto, East Kalimantan.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Monitoring Plots with Different Intensities of Fire Disturbance.- 10.3 Changes After the 1983 Fires.- 10.4 Effect of the Drought and Fires in 1997 and 1998.- 10.5 Conclusion.- 11 Flowering and Fruiting Phenologies of Dipterocarps in a Rainforest in Bukit Soeharto, East Kalimantan.- 11.1 Phenological Observations at Bukit Soeharto Education Forest.- 11.2 Flowering and Fruiting Fluctuations.- 11.3 Reproductive Success.- 11.4 DBH Ranges of Flowering and Fruiting Trees.- 11.5 Death in the Drought and Fires of 1997 and 1998.- 11.6 Conclusion.- 12 Leaf Gas Exchange and Canopy Structure in Wet and Drought Years in Macaranga conifera, a Tropical Pioneer Tree.- 12.1 How Does Drought Affect the Leaf Gas Exchange Process?.- 12.2 Canopy Structure and Leaf Characteristics.- 12.3 Leaf Gas Exchange of the Uppermost Canopy Leaves.- 12.4 Chlorophyll Fluorescence Within Canopy Leaves.- 12.5 Conclusion.- 13 Responses of Dipterocarp Seedlings to Drought Stress.- 13.1 Need for Evaluation of Drought Tolerance in the Wet Tropics.- 13.2 Plant Materials and Irrigation Treatments.- 13.3 Growth Response to Drought Stress.- 13.4 Changes in Dry Matter Allocation.- 13.5 Functional Changes of Seedling Architecture.- 13.6 Conclusion.- 14 The Effect of Droughts and Fires on Coleopteran Insects in Lowland Dipterocarp Forests in Bukit Soeharto, East Kalimantan.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 Sampling Procedure.- 14.3 Effects of Drought and Fire on Various Coleopteran Insects.- 14.4 Conclusion.- 4: Human Impacts on Forest Ecosystems.- 15 Mecha-nism of Changes in the Kenyah’ s Swidden System: Explanation in Terms of Agricultural Intensification Theory.- 15.1 Introduction.- 15.2 Changes in Swidden Agriculture by the Kenyah Dayak.- 15.3 New Concepts for Study of the Shortening of Fallow Period.- 15.4 Intensification Process of the Kenyah’s Swidden System.- 15.5 Conclusion.- 16 Tropical Secondary Forest and Its Succession Following Traditional Slash-and-Burn Agriculture in Mencimai, East Kalimantan.- 16.1 Introduction.- 16.2 Secondary Forests in Mencimai Village.- 16.3 Changes in Forest Structure and Species Richness.- 16.4 Dynamics of Pioneer and Sprouting Trees.- 16.5 Regeneration Characteristics of Shorea parvifolia.- 16.6 Conclusion.- 17 The Role of Slash-and-Burn Agriculture in Transforming Dipterocarp Forest into Imperata Grassland.- 17.1 Introduction.- 17.2 Transformation of Dipterocarp Forests into Imperata Grasslands.- 17.3 Succession in Imperata Grassland.- 17.4 Conclusion.- 18 Impact of Different Intensities of Selective Logging on a Low-Hill Dipterocarp Forest in Pasir, East Kalimantan.- 18.1 Introduction.- 18.2 Research Site, Methods, and Trees Harvested.- 18.3 Effects of Logging at Different Intensities.- 18.4 Countermeasures for Reducing the Damage and Promoting Sustainable Management.- 19 A Case Study of Second Felling in a Logged-Over Dipterocarp Forest.- 19.1 Introduction.- 19.2 Study Site and Forest Structure Before Logging.- 19.3 Felling and Skidding Methods.- 19.4 Effects of Logging on the Forest Stand.- 19.5 Remaining Trees and Predicting the Next Felling.- 20 Effects of Forest Fragmentation on the Behavior of Bornean Gibbons.- 20.1 Introduction.- 20.2 Forests Inhabited by Gibbons.- 20.3 Gibbon Families in the BSEF.- 20.4 Gibbon Families in the Isolated Forests.- 20.5 Forest Roads as Barriers.- 20.6 Isolated Forests as Fragile Sanctuaries.- 20.7 Conclusion.- 5: Rehabilitation Techniques and Constraints on Sustainable Forest Management.- 21 Treatment to Develop Mycorrhiza Formation on Dipterocarp Seedlings.- 21.1 Introduction.- 21.2 Shading Effects.- 21.3 Effect of Inoculum and Selection of Appropriate Fungi.- 21.4 Inoculum, Mulching, and Charcoal Treatments to Enhance Mycorrhizal Infection.- 21.5 Conclusion.- 22 A Convenient Method for Inoculating Dipterocarp Seedlings with the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus, Scleroderma columnare.- 22.1 Introduction.- 22.2 The Inoculation Method and Its Effects.- 22.3 Diurnal Changes in Photosynthesis.- 22.4 Application of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi in the Field.- 22.5 Variation of Affinity Between Different Dipterocarp Species and S. columnare.- 22.6 Conclusion.- 23 Photographic Estimation of Light Environments on Forest Floors and Effects of Light on the Growth of Dipterocarp Seedlings.- 23.1 Introduction.- 23.2 Photographic Estimation of Light Intensity on the Forest Floor and Determination of Its Validity.- 23.3 Light Intensity and Seedling Growth.- 23.4 Conclusion.- 24 In Situ Study of the Effects of Elevated Temperature on Photoinhibition in Climax and Pioneer Species.- 24.1 Introduction.- 24.2 High-Temperature Treatment.- 24.3 Photoinhibition by Elevated Leaf Temperature.- 24.4 Possible Niche Partitioning.- 24.5 Protective Mechanisms for Photoinhibition in Morphology and Physiology.- 24.6 Conclusion.- 25 Growth of Ulin (Eusideroxylon zwageri) Seedlings in Relation to Environmental Factors in the Forest Understory.- 25.1 Decrease in the Growing Stock of an Ironwood Species due to Over-Exploitation.- 25.2 Seedling Growth in Contrasting Light Environments.- 25.3 Growth of Seedlings Seeded Artificially on an Unsuitable Soil.- 25.4 Influence of Fire on Seedling Survival and Regeneration.- 25.5 Conclusion.- 26 Diseases of Dipterocarp Saplings Planted in Buldt Soeharto Education Forest, East Kalimantan.- 26.1 Introduction.- 26.2 Notes on Diseases.- 26.3 Disease Incidence on Different Dipterocarp Species.- 26.4 Conclusion.- 27 Participatory Forest Management.- 27.1 Introduction.- 27.2 The Kenyah’s Resource Management Systems and Their Changes.- 27.3 Evaluation of the Resource Management System by the Kenyah.- 27.4 Basic Course to Introduce Participatory Forest Management.- 27.5 National Forest Policy in Terms of Participation.- 27.6 Closing Remark.- 28 Overview of the Changing Forest Ecosystems in East Kalimantan.- 28.1 Introduction.- 28.2 Implications and Misconceptions Concerning Soil Change.- 28.3 Fire and Human Impact on Vegetation Changes.- 28.4 Drought and Fire Impact on Forest Functions.- 28.5 Fire and Human Impact on Animals.- 28.6 Community Forestry and Rehabilitation.- 28.7 Concluding Remark.- Species Index.

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