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Life Sciences - Ecology | Ecopolis


Architecture and Cities for a Changing Climate

With a Foreword by Ken Yeang

Series: Future City, Vol. 1

Downton, Paul F.

Jointly published with CSIRO Publishing, Australia.



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  • Examines urban adaptation to rapid climate change on the basis of principles of ecologically sustainable development
  • Coverage links climate change, urban ecology, architecture and city planning with significant historical texts, scientific research, and popular cultural expression
  • Author has vast experience in the field
  • Features extensive coverage and examples from around the world
  • Includes a Foreword by Ken Yeang

From 2008, for the first time in human history, half of the world's population now live in cities. Yet despite a wealth of literature on green architecture and planning, there is to date no single book which draws together theory from the full range of disciplines – from architecture, planning and ecology – which we must come to grips with if we are to design future cities which are genuinely sustainable.

Paul Downton's Ecopolis takes a major step along this path. It highlights the urgent need to understand the role of cities as both agents of change and means of survival, at a time when climate change has finally grabbed world attention, and it provides a framework for designing cities that integrates knowledge – both academic and practical – from a range of relevant disciplines.

Identifying key theorists, practitioners, places and philosophies, the book provides a solid theoretical context which introduces the concept of urban fractals, and goes on to present a series of design and planning tools for achieving Sustainable Human Ecological Development (SHED). Combining knowledge from diverse fields to present a synthesis of urban ecology, the book will provide a valuable resource for students, researchers and practitioners in architecture, construction, planning, geography and the traditional life sciences.

Dr Paul Downton is a practising architect and the Director of Ecopolis Architects in Adelaide, Australia.

Content Level » Research

Keywords » Architecture, cities and climate change - Ecopolis/ecocities - SHED/Sustainable human ecological development - Urban ecology and regionalism - Urban fractals/cultural fractals

Related subjects » Ecology - Environmental Management - Global Change - Climate Change

Table of contents 

List of Illustrations,- Foreword; K. Yeang.- Introduction – The City Is My University. Preamble. Regionalism. Words. Weaving. Building the SHED. Rhetoric to Reality. Here Today.-

PART ONE. Propositions, Theory & Practice. Propositions – Epistemology – Perspectives – Projects. People, Places and Philosophies. The Pattern that Connects. 1. The Ground Plan. 1.1 The Idea of Ecopolis. The Purpose of Cities. Oikos, Equity and Urbanism. Projects and Praxis. 1.2 The Ecopolis Propositions. Fitting Cities.
Proposition 1: CITY-REGION: City-regions determine the ecological parameters of civilisation.
Proposition 2: INTEGRATED KNOWLEDGE: There is an imperative need to integrate extant knowledge.
Proposition 3: CULTURAL CHANGE: Creation of an ecological civilisation requires conscious, systemic cultural change.
Proposition 4: URBAN FRACTALS: Demonstration projects provide the means to catalyse cultural change. Cultural Fractals. Urban Demonstrations. Fractal Trim Tabs make Differences. 1.3 Setting Contexts – Places and People. The Organic Community. Cities as Ecosystems. The Ecology of Knowledge. Philosophy, Practice and Popular Culture.-

2. An Epistemology for Urban Ecology. 2.1 An Heuristic Hybrid? Legitimacy Exchange. The Knife Moves. Reconciliation of Urban and Non-urban Epistemologies. Architecture, Cross-talk and Points of View. Ideology and Ethics. Defining Urban Ecology. 2.2 Further Words on Architecture and Ecology. Greening the Discourse. 2.3 Towards Sustainable Human Ecological Development. Putting Design in Its Place. Architecture’s Next Golden Age? 2.4 Romantic Science. Picking Flowers. Objectivity, Subjectivity and the Third Way.-

3. Architecture, Urbanism & Ecological Perspectives. 3.1 Points of View. More or Less? Antecedents and Antitheses. Gardens and Cities. Conservative or Conservationist? 3.2 Integration. The Second Generation of Ecological Design. Four Ecological Phases of Human Existence. Three Urban Phases of Human Settlement.
Stage I – Pre-modern Quasi-sustainable Settlements.
Stage II – The Colonial/Industrial Revolution Unsustainable Stage.
Stage III – Sustainable Cities of the Future. Mainstream sustainability. Which Analysis? Health, Technology and Ecology. Cultural Strata. 3.3 A Sense of Place. Placing the Architectural Experience. Critical Regionalism. Growing from Place. Being Critical of Regionalism. Bioregionalism. Creating Situations. 3.4 Taking the Long View. Scenario Planning. 3.5 Changing Places. Ecological Architecture for a Changing Climate.-

4. Weavers of Theory. Threads. Picking up the Pieces. Categories. 4.1 Picture People – Visionaries and Utopians. Soleri – Arcologies and Spiritual Complexification. Register – From Vegetable Cars to Ecocitology. Fuller – Dymaxion Domes on Spaceship Earth. Howard – The Garden City. Morris – News From Nowhere. Callenbach – Ecotopia. Wright – Broadacre City. 4.2 Process People – Understanding the Nature of Cities. Geddes – A View from the Outlook Tower: Cities in Evolution. Mumford – Cities, Technics, Ecology and the Green Matrix of Regionalism. McHarg – Designing with Nature. Douglas – The Biogeography of the Civitas. Boyden – Human Culture as a Force in Nature. Hough – Cities as Natural Process. Spirn – In the Granite Garden. Jacobs – The Death and Life of Cities. Fisk and Vittori – Maximising the Potential of Building Systems. The Alchemy of the Todds – Bioshelters and Living Machines. Allen and the Bionauts – Off the Planet in Arizona. Berg and the Bioregionalists – Reinhabiting Living Landscapes. Papanek – Designing for the Real World. Van der Ryn and Cowan – Ecological Architecture and Intellectual Coherenc. Yeang – Architect and Bioclimatician. Wang and the Chinese Urban Ecologists – Red is Green. 4.3 Pattern People – Putting the Pieces Together. Vernadsky and the Russian Ecopolis – Traces of Bygone Biospheres. Alexander – People, Patterns, Process and the Nature of Order. Mollison – The Productive Patterns of Permaculture. Frampton – Critical Regionalism. Brand – How Buildings Learn in the Long Now. Wiener and Bateson – Pioneering Cyberneticians. Margulis and Lovelock – Symbiosis and the Theory of Gaia. 4.4 Pragmatic People – Getting from ‘Here’ to ‘There’. Newman and Kenworthy – Auto Dependence. Engwicht – Calming the Traffic. Trainer – Abandoning Affluence. Girardet and the Vales – Inspirational Economy and the Global Urban Condition. 4.5 Principled People. Hackney and Charles – Community Architecture and Royal Blood. Day – Places of the Soul. Wells – Architecting Gently. 4.6 Village People and New Urbanists. Calthorpe and Duany – Everything Old Is New Again. Corbett – Village Homes . 4.7 Political People – Energy, Structure and Citizenship. Turnbull – Invisible Structures. Hawken – A Natural Capitalist. Illich – Energy & Equity. Kropotkin – The Prince of Mutual Aid. Cain, Haggart and Crump – Street Farming. Debord and the Situationists – Creating Situations in the Society of the Spectacle. Bookchin – The Limits of the City.-

5. The Aesthetics of Ecopolis. 5.1 Altered States. Fashioning the Future. Emergent Aesthetics. 5.2 Diversity of Form and Expression. Measuring in Feet. Hard and Soft Geometries. Williams-Ellis – Portmeirion. Gaudi – Catalan Gothic. Hundertwasser – ‘The Straight Line Is Godless, a Tool of the Devil’. Albert – European Organic. Lynch – The Image of the City. 5.3 Appearances Do Count. Hideous Mountains. A House is Not a Machine. Nature Is Good for Us. 5.4 Biophilia. Divine Proportions. 5.5 Cultural Filters. The Doors of Perception. Aesthetics Is Information.-

6. Finding Fractals: Identifying Elements of the Ecopolis. 6.1 Agenda 21, Environment Plans and Sustainability. Local Agenda 21. Sustainability Indicators. 6.2 New Urbanism and Sustainable Houses. Integral Urban or Sustainable? 6.3 Ecocities and Green Urbanism in the USA. Arcosanti. Los Angeles EcoVillage. Healthy Beginnings. Village Homes. Ithaca EcoVillage. Heart of the City. 6.4 EcoUrbanism in Europe. Ecological Settlement Projects in Europe. Mixed Development in Nuremberg. EU Ecocity Project. 6.5 Bits and Pieces in ‘Less Developed’ Countries. Sustaining the South. Colonialism, Compact Cities and the Case of Calcutta. Colonial Cousins. Green Calcutta? No Room for Eco-burgers. 6.6 Around the World in Many Ways. Midrand, South Africa. 6.7 South America – ‘Ecocity’ Curitiba. Paraná: The Region. 6.8 England’s Rural Urbanism. Poundbury. Beverley & the Later Ecocity Projects. Cornish Domes – The Eden Project. Outside In. 6.9 An Ecocity in the Middle East. Fostering New Ideas. 6.10 Ecocities in China. Deep Waters. The Rising Tide.-

7. Building Fractals: Ecopolis Projects in Australia. 7.1 Ecocity Organisation. Grainy Intensity. 7.2 Urban Ecology Australia. A Brief History of the Organisation. Changing the Climate of Opinion. Challenging Negativity. Promoting Demonstration Projects. Three Fractals.
7.3 Fractal 1: The Halifax EcoCity Project. Beginnings. Placing the Project. Projected Features. Initiating the Project. A Working Model. A Cultural Adventure. Regional and Economic Context. Process. The Barefoot Architecture Program. The Built Form. Analytical Diagrams of the Halifax EcoCity Project Design. History 1992–1998. Wirranendi Inc. Registrations, Meetings and Workshops. Option to Purchase. Roelof’s Report. Non-events and the 1994 EcoCity Forum. Hobson’s Choice. Halifax Report – October 1996. Preferred Developer – December 1997. The Halifax Site Tender. Dancing with the Wolves. Developers Selected. Key Objectives Abandoned,
7.4 Fractal 2: The Whyalla EcoCity Development. Beginnings. Regional and Economic Context. The Land Grant. The Consultancy. Process and Community. Public Meetings. Whyalla Why Not? Workshops. The Urban Design Workshop. Community Energy. Media Coverage. The Project Team and Community Liaison. Hands Across the Water. Guidelines and Goals. A Critically Regionalist Built Form. Urban Design Guidelines and Site Planning. Community Developers. The Buddhists – Sakya Yigah Choeling. Mixed Blessings. The Anglicans. Excel Enterprises. The Whyalla Eco City Information Feature. EcoCity Housing. EcoCity Sub-Division Design. Conservational Development. An ‘Ecocity’ Outcome?
7.5 Fractal 3: Christie Walk. The Bourne Court Pilot Project. Christie Walk and the ‘Roman Hu'. Climate and Site. Research and Education. Design and Construction. Community Self-Reliance. Lessons and Achievements. A Successful Adventure. Participation. Awareness. Organisation. Architecting, Building and Developing. Evaluations. 7.6 Fractal Dreaming. Social Experiments. The Halifax EcoCity Urban Fractal. The Shopfront. Under-Valuing the Community Sector. Inside Views from Overseas. Whyalla EcoCity Development. Community Engagement and Cultural Impact. The Christie Walk Urban Fractal. Media and Outreach. Community Action. Leadership. Human Resources. Ups and Downs. Barriers. Habits of Competition. Make Ecopolis Not War!- PLATES 1-40.-

PART TWO. Towards a Theoretical Synthesis. Synthesis – SHED – Conclusion. Rebuilding the Foundations. Philosophy, Practice and Popular Culture. Attack or Defend? Design Synthesis. Pattern Pieces. An Urbanism of Resistance. Technology is the Key. Essentials. 

8. Synthesis I: City Ecology. 8.1 Structures of Life. Life Cycles. Little Cities, Big Impacts. What is this Life? Dead or Alive. Life Form? A City is not an Organism. City Skins. Skins and Layers. Constantly Renewing Skins. Architecting and Nature. Buildings as Ecosystems. The Living City. 8.2 The Mindful Organism. Co-opting the Environment. Cities Are Us. Agents of Change. 8.3 The Nature of Cities. Time, and the Art of City Maintenance. (Box: Cracks in the Pavement – The Leaving of London). Modelling the Nature of Cities. Mapping the Nature of Cities. 8.4 Habitats and Design Guidelines for Non-Human Species. Wild Law. Ecological Corridors. Urban Wildlife. Barriers to Wildlife in the City. Edge Effects. 8.5 Restore Degraded Land – Adaptive and Regenerative Urbanism. Food Security. Equity Corridors. Productive Landscapes. City Farms. Green Roofs and Walls: Architecture, Habitat and Food. 8.6 Create Compact Cities. Density and Disorder. Compact, Ecological or Green? The Killer Sprawl of Urbanoclasm. 8.7 Provide Health and Security. The Health of Cities: Holurbanism, Malurbanism & Vital Signs. The Reproduction of Cities. Holurbanism (Urban Spawn). Malurbanism (Urban Sprawl). Climate Change and the Inconvenient City. 8.8 Optimise Energy and Resource Use. Biomimicry. Closing the Loops. 8.9 Balance Development. Search for Limits. New Shores, New Edges, New Towns. New Worlds?-

9. Synthesis II: ABC of EcoDevelopment. 9.1 The Power of Limits. Planning for the Long Now. Extra Sensory Perception. 9.2 Invisible structures. Codification. Sensible Places. Geomancy and Feng Shui. Sacred Space. Gendered Space and the Power of Form. 9.3 Encourage Community – Democracy and Citizenship. Colonisation, Consumers and Citizenship. The Passively Educated. Industrialisation and Urbanisation. The Politics of the City. From the Invisible to the Inspirational. 9.4 Promote Social Justice and Equity. Double Plus Ungood. Expropriation of the Public Domain. Patterns of Space. Boundaries, Edges and Connections. The Communal Eye. Access and Movement. 9.5 Contribute to the Economy. The Development Process. LETS. Ecological Capitalism. 9.6 Enrich History and Culture. Empowerment in the Built. Environment. Critical Regionalism and the Place of Architecture. Regionalism and Perception. 9.7 Fit the Bioregion. Basic Regional Relationships. Bioregionalism and the Search for Limits. The Same Word for a Place and the People Who Live in It. Regions. Bioregionalism vs. Balkanisation. Finding the Place of Cities.- 

0. Synthesis III: Education, Advocacy and Activism. 10.1 Agents of Change. Culture and Sacrifice. Capturing the Transmitters. Greater than War. 10.2 Media: Getting the Message Out. Education. 10.3 Exhibitionism: Ecopolis Now! The Power of the Image. 10.4 Running Barefoot. Participation. Successful Examples of Participation. The Urban Design Workshops in Whyalla. Typologies. Design Is About Performance, Not Appearance. Virtually. The Barefoot Architecture Program. Resources. Popular Communication Methods. Getting the Numbers Right. Healthy Builders. 10.5 Education and Community. Streets and Schooling. 10.6 Thinking Machines. The Outlook Tower. Fiction as Education. Urban Ecology in Academia. INTERNational Outreach and Education. 10.7 Shadow Plans. Ecocity Mapping and the Birth of Shadow Planning. Shadow Plans of the River Torrens Catchment Tandanya Bioregion. How the Process Takes Place. Indicator Species. Shadow Plans – Enabling Vision or Hopeless Fantasy? Kannenberg. 10.8 The City as the Basis of Social Action. Red Flag. Taking It to the Streets. 10.9 The Ecopolitan iPod. They Paved Paradise – California Dreaming and Popular Culture. Ecopolis Now! 10.10 Sound Bites, Fashion and Cultural Change. Ecopolis Propositions – The Sound Bite Version. The Talk of the Town.-

11. Synthesis IV: The SHED – Sustainable Human Ecological Development. 11.1 Building a SHED. Rag Bag and Building Blocks. 11.2 Charter of Calcutta. 11.3 The Icons. Fractals in the SHED. 11.4 SHED Navigation Matrix, or Concordance. 11. 5 The Seven Steps of SHEDding. Settling in Place: Watershed and Region – A Basis for Process. Communitecology. The Emptiness and the Way. SHED 1 Shedding. SHED 2 Placing. SHED 3 Biozoning. SHED 4 Lifelining. SHED 5 Proximating. SHED 6 Patterning. SHED 7 Architecting. 11.6 The Ecopolis Development Principles. Minimise Ecological Footprints (Biophysical). Maximise Human Potential (Human Ecology). EDP 1 Restore Degraded Land. EDP 2 Fit the Bioregion. EDP 3 Balance Development. EDP 4 Create Compact Cities. EDP 5 Optimise Energy and Resource Use. EDP 6 Contribute to the Economy. EDP 7 Provide Health and Security. EDP 8 Encourage Community. EDP 9 Promote Social Justice and Enquity. EDP10 Enrich History and Culture. 11.7 The Frogstick. FROG 1 Air. FROG 2 Water. FROG 3 Earth (soil). FROG 4 Fire (energy). FROG 5 Biomass. FROG 6 Food. FROG 7 Biodiversity. FROG 8 Habitat. FROG 9 Ecolinks. FROG 10 Resource Use. Frogstick Scoresheets.-

12. Our Cities, Our Selves. 12.1 The Keys to the City. Community and Patronage. Cities of Imagination. 12.2 Our Cities, Our Selves. A World of Cities. City-Region. Integrated Knowledge. Cultural Change. Urban Fractals. 12.3 Evolutionary Cities. An Ethical Imperative. Invisibility. Culture and the Art of Lifecycle Maintenance. Cities as Extensions of Human Physiology. Ecopolis Scenario Planning. Cities for a Changing Climate. Urban Evolutionaries. 12.4 After Words. Dancing to the Music of the Biosphere. House Hold.- Appendices. 1 My Favourite Thought Experiment. 2 Density and Urban Villages. Urban Villages. 3 City Size: the Case of Somerset and Adelaide. Cities and Size. 4 Adelaide, Calcutta and the Western Comfort Zone. 5 Charter for a New Municipium.-

Illustrations (Source: All by Paul Downton or Ecopolis Architects Pty Ltd unless otherwise noted). Plates (32 pages after Chapter 7). 1 Shadow Plan 1836. 2 Shadow Plan 1996. 3 Shadow Plan 2076. 4 Shadow Plan 2136. 5 Ecopolis Salisbury – Perspective Drawing. 6 Halifax EcoCity Project – Perspective Drawing. 7 Masdar, UAE – An Airiel View (Image and architecture by Foster + Partners). 8 Masdar, UAE – Street Scene (Image and architecture by Foster + Partners). 9 Dongtan – South Village (Arup). 10 EDITT Tower, Singapore (Llewelyn Davies Yeang). 11 Chongqing Tower, China (Llewelyn Davies Yeang). 12 Adelaide Outlook Tower (Ecopolis Architects in association with TR Hamzah & Yeang). 13 Arcosanti – The Foundry Apse (Soleri Archives). 14 Arcosanti – The Arcosanti Vaults (Soleri Archives). 15 Solare (Soleri Archives). 16 A Future San Francisco (Richard Register). 17 Arcata Plaza, California (Richard Register). 18 Strawberry Creek Plaza, Berkeley, California (Richard Register). 19 Ithaca Ecovillage, New York (Jim Bosjolie). 20 Vegetable Car, Berkeley (Richard Register). 21 Curitiba’s famous buses and bus shelters. 22 Curitiba pedestrian street by day. 23 Curitiba pedestrian street by night. 24 Ecopolis Now! Exhibition Panel – Escape From the Cities of Boiling Frogs. 25 Ecopolis Now! Exhibition Panel – City Cancer. 26 Ecopolis Now! Exhibition Panel – ‘Your Planet Needs You!’. 27 Ecopolis Now! Exhibition Panel – Beware the Technical Fix! 28 Ecopolis Now! Exhibition Panel – Ecopolis. 29 Ecopolis Now! Exhibition Panel – A Sense of Place – The Tandanya Bioregion. 30 Ecopolis Now! Exhibition Panel – Desert Power. 31 Ecopolis Now! Exhibition Panel – Going Bush. 32 Ecopolis Now! Exhibition Panel – Going Home. 33 Ecopolis Now! Exhibition Panel – Street Life. 34 Ecopolis Adelaide – The Halifax EcoCity Project – Axonometric. 35 Whyalla Ecocity Development – Site Plan. 36 Whyalla Ecocity Information Feature. 37 Buddhist Meditation Centre. 38 Whyalla Ecocity Development. 39 Christie Walk, Adelaide, South Australia – Stage 3 Building. 40 Christie Walk, Adelaide, South Australia – Designed for High Density. 41 Christie Walk, Adelaide, South Australia – Seasonal Shade for Solar Townhouses. 42 Christie Walk, Adelaide, South Australia – Convivial Outdoor Environment. 43 Christie Walk, Adelaide, South Australia – Roof Garden. 44 Christie Walk, Adelaide, South Australia – Scale and Texture. 45 Christie Walk, Adelaide, South Australia – In the Centre of the City (Scott Harding, Hardimage). Figures. 1 The Halifax EcoCity Project – ‘Southgate’. 2 Icons for the 3 City Types. 3 Points of View. 4 Arcology Babel IIC (Soleri Archives). 5 Vegetable Car Sketch (Richard Register). 6 Ecocity Downtown (Richard Register). 7 Elevated Foot and Cycle Paths in Ecocity Downtown (Richard Register). 8 Tokyo Nara Tower (Ken Yeang). 9 Caution Pedestrians. 10 Poundbury – Princely Principles Applied? 11 Arcosanti (Soleri Archives). 12 San Francisco (Richard Register). 13 European Coastal Town (Effie Best). 14 Halifax EcoCity Project Perspective/ Whyalla EcoCity Development Design Workshop. 15 Cultural Filters. 16 Arcosanti – The original proposition (Soleri Archives). 17 Ithica Ecovillage – Looking east down the first neighborhood's main street. (Jim Bosjolie). 18 Curitiba Smog. 19 Poundbury – Still struggling with the car. 20 Site Plan of Downton & Pickles Proposal for Beverley (Downton and Pickles). 21 Perspective Rendering of the Downton & Pickles Proposal (Downton and Pickles). 22 The Urban Ecology Australia Logo. 23 City of Adelaide Location of Case Study Sites. 24 The Halifax EcoCity Project Logo. 25 Make EcoCities Not War. 26 Tandanya Bioregion. 27 HEP Planning Analysis – Building Types and Configurations. 28 HEP Planning Analysis – External Space Types. 29 HEP Planning Analysis – Climate and Energy, Water and Services. 30 HEP Planning Analysis – Movement. 31 HEP Planning Analysis – Urban Patterns. 32 UEA Youth Contingent for Habitat 2. 33 The Last Ecopolis HEP Building Design. 34 Detail of HEP 1:100 scale model. 35 Whyalla Ecocity perspective. 36 Whyalla EcoCity Development Urban Design Guidelines – Diagram 1. 37 Whyalla EcoCity Development Urban Design Guidelines – Diagram 2. 38 Whyalla EcoCity Development Urban Design Guidelines – Diagram 3. 39 Whyalla EcoCity Development Urban Design Guidelines – Diagram 4. 40 Whyalla EcoCity Development Urban Design Guidelines – Diagram 5. 41 Whyalla EcoCity Development Urban Design Guidelines – Diagram 6. 42 Whyalla EcoCity Development Urban Design Guidelines – Diagram 7. 43 Whyalla EcoCity Development Urban Design Guidelines – Diagram 8. 44 Whyalla EcoCity Development Urban Design Guidelines – Diagram 9. 45 Whyalla EcoCity Development Urban Design Guidelines – Diagram 10. 46 Whyalla EcoCity Development Urban Design Guidelines – Diagram 11. 47 Whyalla EcoCity Development Urban Design Guidelines – Diagram 12. 48 Whyalla EcoCity Development Urban Design Guidelines – Diagram 13. 49 Whyalla EcoCity Development Urban Design Guidelines – Diagram 14. 50 Sketch of the proposed Buddhist Meditation Centre. 51 Whyalla EcoChurch original sketch proposal. 52 EcoCity Information Feature from South West. 53 Generic Whyalla EcoHouse Drawing. 54 Christie Walk rooftop. 55 Ecological Building: An Ecosystem for Thinking. 56 Vascular Street Patterns. 57 Nest by Paper Wasps. 58 Concept Plan for 10,000 Population New Town. 59 The Many Contributions of Trees. 60 Ecotones and Edge Effects. 61 Diagrammatic Comparison of Development Patterns. 62 Human Society Integral to Ecosystem Diagram. 63 DenseCity Project Model. 64 City in Space – Soleri’s Asteromo (Soleri Archives). 65 Evolving Global Consciousness. 66 ‘But You Run Things!" (Downton and Dumbleton). 67 One Person’s Amenity is Another Person’s Barrier. 68 Perceptions of Place. 69 The First Ten Minutes of one of the Urban Design Workshops. 70 The Next Ten Minutes of one of the Urban Design Workshops. 71 An Hour-and-a-half into the Urban Design Workshop. 72 The End of the Workshop. 73 People Place Work. 74 An Ecocity Strategy for Berkeley (Richard Register1987 p.119-130). 75 Intern Creedman and one of the Shadow Plan panels. 76 Metropolitan Adelaide and Somerset, England. 77 The Author at an Early Age. Tables. 1 The ‘Geometry’ of Urban Fractals. 2 Four Ecological Phases of Human Existence. 3 The New Alchemy Emerging Precepts of Biological Design and The Hannover Principles (compiled by the author). 4 Cowan and Van der Ryn’s Design Principles. 5 Yeang’s Ecosystems Hierarchy and Design Strategy. 6 New Ecological Settlement Projects in Europe. 7 Christie Walk organisational diagram. 8 ‘Green Spec’ Environmental Performance Requirements. 9 Christie Walk Environmental Responses. 10 Comparison between Christie Walk and conventional development. 11 Ecological Settlement Projects – Halifax EcoCity Project & Christie Walk. 12 Characteristic Life Forms. 13 Layers in Ecosystem Function. 14 Graphical and Tabular comparison of development options. 15 Holurbanism and Malurbanism Comparative Table. 16 Invisible Structures. 17 Public-Private Interface. 18 The Development Process. 19 Proposed New Structure for Integrated System of Planning (Kannenberg 1998 p.38). 20 Key to the Icons. 21 Some Relationships to the ‘Geometry’ of Urban Fractals. 22 The SHED Sequence. 23 Frogstick 1: Wilderness. 24 Frogstick 2: City of Adelaide. 25 Frogstick 3: Halifax EcoCity Project. 26 Frogstick 4: Whyalla EcoCity Development. 27 Frogstick 5: Christie Walk.-

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