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Life Sciences - Ecology | Lipids in Freshwater Ecosystems

Lipids in Freshwater Ecosystems

Arts, Michael T., Wainmann, Bruce C. (Eds.)

1999, XIV, 319 p.

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Although limnology is a young discipline, it has, over the past century, experi­ enced marked growth. Its early descriptive period was a long one, given the enormous diversity of biota and environments in freshwater ecosystems. With the development of quantitative techniques came the ability to measure production rates and other parameters and to demonstrate the effects of nutrient limitation and predation on productivity and energy flow. As understanding of these phenomena grew, so too did our appreciation of the many complex chemical interactions among the biotic and habitat components of freshwater ecosystems. A recent, exciting phase of limnology, which may be called biochemical lim­ nology, is evolving rapidly. One of its many facets is the study of population and community dynamics at basic physiological levels. Examples are many. The integration of recent studies of food biochemistry with traditional studies of food quantity has begun to reveal the striking importance of food quality to reproduc­ tion and to the growth dynamics of many aquatic animals. Positive as well as negative alleleochemical interactions, already known in terrestrial ecosystems, are emerging as a major factor of many competitive interactions in fresh waters.

Content Level » Research

Keywords » chemistry - ecology - ecosystem - fish - health - invertebrates - limnology - metabolism - phytoplankton - plankton - seasonal dynamics - toxicology

Related subjects » Ecology - Nature Conservation & Biodiversity - Paleoenvironmental Sciences - Pollution and Remediation

Table of contents 

1. Determination of Total Lipid, Lipid Classes, and Fatty Acids in Aquatic Samples.- 1.1. Introduction.- 1.2. Results and Discussion.- 1.2.1. Sampling and Storage.- 1.2.2. Lipid Extraction.- 1.2.3. Determination of Total Lipid.- 1.2.4. Determination of Lipid Classes.- 1.2.5. Determination of Fatty Acids and Carbon Number Profiles.- 1.3. Conclusion.- References.- 2. Fatty Acids as Trophic and Chemical Markers in Freshwater Ecosystems.- 2.1. Introduction.- 2.2. Nomenclature.- 2.3. Characteristics of Fatty Acid Markers for Trophic Studies.- 2.4. Primary Sources and Trophic Transfer of Fatty Acids.- 2.4.1. Fatty Acid Composition of Algae and Cyanobacteria.- 2.4.2. Fatty Acids as Trophic Markers of Algae and Cyanobacteria.- 2.4.3. Fatty Acid Composition of Bacteria.- 2.4.4. Fatty Acids as Trophic Markers of Bacteria.- 2.4.5. Fatty Acid Markers from Allochthonous Sources.- 2.4.6. Fatty Acids as Trophic Markers in Vertebrates.- 2.5. Research Needs.- 2.6. Conclusions.- References.- 3. Irradiance and Lipid Production in Natural Algal Populations.- 3.1. Introduction.- 3.2. Metabolism and Reallocation.- 3.2.1. Lipids in Relation to Other Macromolecular Classes.- 3.2.2. Diel Versus Light-Phase Allocation and Synthesis.- 3.2.3. Budgets for Overnight Activity.- 3.2.4. Reallocation Among Lipid Classes.- 3.3. Irradiance and Lipid Synthesis.- 3.3.1. Photosynthetic Parameters.- 3.3.2. Light Saturation Parameter, Ik.- 3.3.3. Production Efficiency Parameter, ?.- 3.3.4. Areal Lipid Production.- 3.3.5. Implications of the Irradiance Response.- 3.4. Conclusions.- 3.5. Research Directions.- References.- 4. Lipids in Freshwater Zooplankton: Selected Ecological and Physiological Aspects.- 4.1. Introduction.- 4.2. Usefulness of Areal Energy Reserve Estimates.- 4.3. Time Course of Lipid Deposition/Loss.- 4.4. Lipids as Indices of Stress.- 4.4.1. Ratio of Storage to Membrane Lipids.- 4.4.2. Maternal Lipid Investment.- 4.4.3. Visible Lipid Energy Stores.- 4.4.4. Fatty Acid Composition and Abundance.- 4.5. Ultraviolet Radiation and Zooplankton Lipids.- 4.6. Research Needs and Suggested Future Directions.- 4.6.1. Geographical Disparities.- 4.6.2. Physicochemical Disparities.- 4.6.3. Essential Fatty Acids.- 4.6.4. Effects of Temperature Changes.- 4.6.5. Diapause.- 4.6.6. Lipids as Allelopathic Compounds and Chemical Feeding Deterrents.- 4.7. Conclusions.- References.- 5. Lipid Dietary Dependencies in Zooplankton.- 5.1. Introduction.- 5.2. Methods.- 5.2.1. Microparticle Preparation.- 5.2.2. Dietary Supplement Experiments.- 5.2.3. Characterization of the Natural Algal Diet.- 5.2.4. Algal Counting and Autoradiography.- 5.3. Results.- 5.3.1. Supplement Experiments with Natural Populations.- 5.3.2. Lake Waynewood Experiment: October 1989.- 5.3.2.1. Algal Diet.- 5.3.2.2. Response byDaphnia.- 5.4. Discussion.- References.- 6. Seasonal Dynamics of Lipids in Freshwater Benthic Invertebrates.- 6.1. Introduction.- 6.2. Results and Discussion.- 6.2.1. Slope and Profundal Zones.- 6.2.1.1. Crustacea: Amphipoda.- 6.2.1.2. Mysidacea.- 6.2.2. Shelf and Nearshore Zones.- 6.2.2.1. Crustacea: Amphipoda.- 6.2.2.2. Annelida: Oligochaeta.- 6.2.2.3. Insecta.- 6.2.2.4. Mollusca: Bivalvia.- 6.3. Research Needs.- 6.4. Conclusions.- References.- 7. Ecological Role of Lipids in the Health and Success of Fish Populations.- 7.1. Introduction.- 7.2. Results and Discussion.- 7.2.1. Overwinter Starvation and Survival.- 7.2.2. Energy Allocation Strategies.- 7.2.3. Reproductive Development and Early Life History.- 7.2.4. Lipids and Environmental Stress.- 7.2.4.1. Contaminant Effects.- 7.2.4.2. Thermal Effects.- 7.2.4.3. Other Stressors.- References.- 8. Lipids and Essential Fatty Acids in Aquatic Food Webs: What Can Freshwater Ecologists Learn from Mariculture?.- 8.1. Introduction.- 8.2. Results and Discussion.- 8.2.1. Some Important Lipids and Fatty Acids.- 8.2.1.1. Essential Fatty Acids.- 8.2.1.2. Lipid Classes.- 8.2.2. Methodological Considerations.- 8.2.3. Physiological Requirements of Marine Animals.- 8.2.3.1. General Evaluation of EFA Requirements.- 8.2.3.2. Anabolic Processes and Growth.- 8.2.3.3. Membrane Transport and Metabolism.- 8.2.3.4. Regulation of Metabolism.- 8.2.3.5. General Considerations and Concluding Remarks.- 8.2.4. Methods for Evaluation of EFA Requirements.- 8.2.5. Symptoms of EFA Deficiency.- 8.2.6. Fatty Acid Transport and Metabolism in Food Webs.- 8.2.6.1. Algae.- 8.2.6.1.1. Lipids of Algae.- 8.2.6.1.2. Essential Fatty Acids of Algae.- 8.2.6.1.3. Conclusion.- 8.2.6.2. Zooplankton.- 8.2.6.2.1. Lipid Content and Lipid Composition.- 8.2.6.2.2. Fatty Acids of TAG-Zooplankton.- 8.2.6.3. Fish.- 8.2.6.3.1. Lipid.- 8.2.6.3.2. Fatty Acid Composition.- 8.2.6.4. General Conclusions.- 8.2.7. Relevance of Mariculture Research.- 8.2.8. Evaluation of Ecological Effects of Essential Fatty Acids.- 8.3. Concluding Remarks.- References.- 9. Influence of Lipids on the Bioaccumulation and Trophic Transfer of Organic Contaminants in Aquatic Organisms.- 9.1. Introduction.- 9.1.1. Sources of Contaminant Gain and Loss in Aquatic Systems.- 9.1.2. Organism Adiposity and Internal Distribution of Contaminants.- 9.1.3. Nonlipid Factors Affecting Internal Distributions.- 9.2. Prediction of Bioconcentration and Bioaccumulation.- 9.2.1. Bioconcentration.- 9.2.2. Bioaccumulation.- 9.3. Factors Affecting Prediction.- 9.3.1. Methods for Measuring Lipid Content.- 9.3.2. Lipid Composition and Bioaccumulation.- 9.4. Mimicking Bioconcentration with Semipermeable Membrane Devices.- 9.5. Toxicity and the Role of Lipid.- 9.5.1. Release of Sequestered Contaminant During Metabolism.- 9.5.2. Lipids and Membrane Narcosis.- 9.5.3. Effect of Toxins on Lipid Metabolism and Function.- 9.6. Relevance of Food Chain Transfer to Bioaccumulation.- 9.6.1. Relevance of Trophic Transfer to Bioaccumulation...- 9.6.2. Role of Lipids in Food Chain Accumulation.- 9.6.2.1. Fugacity Model.- 9.6.2.2. Mechanism for Trophic Transfer.- 9.6.3. Factors Affecting Trophic Transfer.- 9.6.3.1. Assimilation Efficiency.- 9.6.3.2. Miscellaneous Factors Affecting Assimilation.- 9.7. Biomagnification and Organism Lipids.- 9.7.1. Is Biomagnification Real?.- 9.7.2. A Lipid-Based Model for Biomagnification.- 9.7.3. Current Issues in Biomagnification and Relationship to Lipids.- 9.8. Lipids and Transgenerational Transfer of Contaminants.- 9.9. Conclusions.- References.- 10. Lipids in Water-Surface Microlayers and Foams.- 10.1. Introduction.- 10.2. Basic Physicochemistry of Surface Microlayers.- 10.3. Basic Structure of Foams.- 10.4. Sampling Techniques.- 10.5. Physicochemical Processes at the Surface Microlayers.- 10.6. Lipids in the Water-Surface Microlayers and Foams.- 10.6.1. Total Lipids and Major Lipid Classes.- 10.6.2. Fatty Acids.- 10.7. Research Needs.- 10.8. Final Remarks.- References.- 11. Comparison of Lipids in Marine and Freshwater Organisms.- 11.1. Introduction.- 11.2. Discussion.- 11.2.1. Lipid Classes.- 11.2.2. Sterols and Cholesterol.- 11.2.3. Wax Esters and Triacylglycerols.- 11.2.4. Fatty Acids.- 11.2.5. Furan and Some Other Unusual Fatty Acids.- 11.2.6. Ether Lipids.- 11.2.7. Prostanoids.- 11.3. Conclusions.- References.

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