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Life Sciences - Behavioral Sciences | Soundscape Ecology - Principles, Patterns, Methods and Applications

Soundscape Ecology

Principles, Patterns, Methods and Applications

Farina, Almo

2014, XIII, 315 p. 113 illus., 40 illus. in color.

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  • First handbook on soundscape ecology for a graduate course  in advanced landscape ecology
  • Integration between soundscape and landscape principles
  • Application of the soundscape ecology to nature conservation and human well-being

Soundscape Ecology represents a new branch of ecology and it is the result of the integration of different disciplines like Landscape ecology, Bioacoustics, Acoustic ecology, Biosemiotics, etc. The soundscape that is the object of this discipline, is defined as the acoustic context resulting from natural and human originated sounds  and it is considered a relevant environmental proxy for animal and human life.

With Soundscape Ecology Almo Farina means to offer a new cultural tool to investigate a partially explored component of the environmental complexity. For this he intends to set the principles of this new discipline, to delineate the epistemic domain  in which to develop new ideas and theories and to describe the necessary integration with all the other ecological/environmental disciplines.

The book is organized in ten chapters. The first two chapters delineate principles and theory of soundscape ecology. Chapters three and four describe the bioacoustic and communication theories. Chapter five is devoted to the human dimension of soundscape.  Chapters six to eight regard the major sonic patterns like noise, choruses and vibrations. Chapter nine is devoted to the methods in soundscape ecology and finally chapter ten describes the application of the soundscape analysis.

Content Level » Research

Keywords » Animal communication - Bioacoustics - Human sonic context - Landscape ecology - Soundscape ecology

Related subjects » Behavioral Sciences - Ecology - Monitoring & Environmental Analysis - Nature Conservation & Biodiversity

Table of contents 


1          Soundscape  & Landscape Ecologies

1.1 Introduction

1.2 A  Semantic Caveat: Sound, Sonic, Acoustic

1.3 The Definition of Soundscape

1.4 A Brief History of Soundscape Ecology: Origins and Perspectives

1.5 The Disciplinary Contribution to the Soundscape Ecology

1.6 The Three  Sources of the Sonic Environment

            1.6.1 Geophonies

            1.6.2 Biophonies

            1.6.3 Anthrophonies

1.7 Foreground and Background Sonic Environment

1.8 Hi-Fi  &  Lo-Fi Soundscapes

1.9 Landscape: Emerging Patterns and Dynamics

1.10 Sonic Patterns in Soundscape Ecology

1.10.1 Definition of Sonotope

1.10.2 Definition of Soundtope

1.10.3 Definition of Sonotone

1.11 The Relationship between Landscape Structure and Soundscape Patterns

1.12 The  Sonic Components of the  Environment and the General Theory of  Resources

1.13 Definition of Sonic Eco-field

1.14 Landscape Fragmentation  and Soundscape Processes




2          The Sonic Characters of the Landscapes

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Weather Conditions and Sound propagation

2.3 Climatic Patterns and Sounds

2.4 Elevation and Song Complexity

2.5 The Contribution of Vegetation Micro and Macro Structure to Sonic Environment

2.6 Reverberation and Attenuation in Broadleaf and Pine Forests

2.7 Vibrations and Leaves

2.8 Sound Propagation at Forest Edges

2.9 The Jungle Soundscape

2.10 The Sound of Fire




3          Bioacoustic Theories

3.1 Introduction

3.2 The Morphological Adaptation Hypothesis (MAH)

3.3 The Acoustic Adaptation Hypothesis (AAH)

3.4 The Acoustic Niche Hypothesis (ANH)

3.5 The Species Recognition Hypothesis (SRH)



4          Communication Theories

4.1 Introduction

4.2 The Communication Theory

4.3 Eavesdropping and the Interspecific Communication

4.4 Echolocation: a Special Case of Communication

4.5 Heterospecific and Conspecific Attraction

4.6 Male-Female Song Recognition

4.7 Sound Degradation and Ranging  Hypothesis

4.8 Distress Calls

4.9 Soundscape Orientation and Spatial Source Segregation

4.10 Ecological  Codes

4.11 How to Improve Signaling 

4.12 The Honesty  of  Acoustical Signals

4.13 Dialects as a Divergent Communication

4.14 Acoustic Partitioning in Birds and Frogs

4.15 Communication in Steep Soil

4.16 Signaling Systems and Climatic Proxies

4.17 Song and Reproductive Timing

4.18 Acoustic Cues and Antipredatory Performance

4.19 Soft Song

4.20 The Bioacoustics Interactions between Plants and   Insects



5          The Human Dimension of the Soundscape: from Individuals to Society

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Psychological  Approach  to  the Soundscape Interpretation

5.3 Noise Sensitivity

5.4 Noise Annoyance: Definition  and  Evaluation  Procedures

5.5 A Soundscape Semantic

5.6 Elements of Psychoacoustics

5.7 Noise Pollution: a Growing Problem for Human Societies

5.8 Noise Consequences on  Human Physiology and Health

5.9 The Characters of the Urban Soundscape

5.10 The Sonic Environment of the Urban Parks

5.11 Pleasant Sounds, Sound Pressure Level and Acoustic Comfort

5.12 The Value of Soundmarks in Urban Landscape

5.13 The Interactions between Visual  and Acoustic Stimuli

5.14 Quiet Areas as Solution to Decrease People Annoyance

5.15 The Aesthetic Component of Soundscape Interpretation

5.16 Conclusions




6          Sonic Patterns I:  The Noise

6.1 Introduction

6.2 A  Definition of Noise

6.3 Characteristics of the Anthropogenic Noise

6.4 Active Space and Noise

6.5 The Noise Context

6.6 Noise in Patchy Sonotopes

6.7 Noise Pattern as a Source of Environmental Pollution

6.8 The Effects of Noise on Vocal Animals

6.9 Masking Effect on Animal Life

6.10 Underwater Sound Sources

6.11 Marine Sound Signature

6.12 Acoustic Masking in Freshwater Ecosystems

6.13 Acoustic Masking in Marine Ecosystems

6.14 Ship and Boat Traffic on Marine Wildlife

6.15 Effect of Traffic Noise on Wildlife

6.16 Noise as Signal in Marine Environments

6.17 Noise from a Multi-Source Environment

6.18 Oil Spill, Noise and Effects on Animals

6.19 Wind Turbines and Noise

6.20 Military Noise

6.21 A Psychoacoustic Approach to the Noise

6.22 Noise from Urban Soundscapes

6.23 A Historical Perspective of Urban Noise

6.24 The  Cognitive Component  in Noise Evaluation

6.25 Effect of  Noise on Humans and Societies Health

6.26 Urban Soundscape Design for Biodiversity

6.27 Perspectives in Noise Research



7          Sonic Patterns II: The Choruses

7.1 Introduction

7.2 The Chorus Hypotheses

7.3 Choruses in Amphibians

7.4 Cooperative versus Competitive  Hypothesis in Amphibian Choruses

7.5 Choruses in Birds

7.6 Reproduction Mechanisms and Choruses




8          Sonic Patterns III: Sounds and Vibrations from Soils

8.1  Introduction

8.2 Seismic Signals from Reptiles

8.3 Seismic Signals from Mammals

8.4 Seismic Signals from Arthropods

8.5 Soil Pests, Sound Detection and Biodiversity Assessment




9          Methods

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Basic Elements of Acoustics

9.2.1 The Sound

9.2.2 The Decibel

9.3 Digital Representation of Sound

9.4 Time Domain and Frequency Domain  of Sound

9.5 The Spectrogram

9.6 Field Recording Procedures

9.7 Metrics in Soundscape Ecology

9.7.1 Sound Pressure Measurements

9.7.2 Spectral Analysis

9.8 Pattern Recognition of Vocalizations

9.9 Functional Diversity Indices

9.10 Software Tools for Soundscape Analysis

9.11 Browsing  the Audio Data Base

9.12 Methods to Evaluate/Rating the Quality of the Sonic Ambient

9.13 Method of Soundwalking

9.14 Soundscape Customer Satisfaction

9.15 The  Assessment of the Human-Perceived Soundscape




10        Applications

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Threats to Animal Communication

10.3 Acoustic Monitoring

10.4 A Sonic Observatory

10.5 Mapping Quiet Areas

10.6 Valuing Noises in Recreation Areas

10.7 Managing Sonic Context in Natural Areas

10.8 Soundscape Protection in National Parks

            10.9 Perceived Crowding in Natural Parks

10.10 Snowmobile Noise in National Parks

10.11 Aircraft Noise in National Parks

10.12 Valuing Sonic Heritage

10.13 Some Characters of the Urban Sonic Environment

10.14 Urban Noise Management

10.15 Traffic Noise Mitigation Procedures and Urban Spaces

10.16 Design the Soundscape of Urban Spaces and Parks

10.17 Sonification



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