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Integration of classical methods and modern imaging techniques in the fields of comparative anatomy and evolutionary morphology
From early on, anatomical imaging proceeded along three tracks that p- moted each other mutually. One track consisted of human beings interested in the organic structure of animals and humans. This track comprises Pal- and Neolithic hunters, shamans and clairvoyants of Sumeran and Babylonian times, dissecting artists of the Middle Ages, e. g. , Leonardo da Vinci, and leads us to skilled and creative scienti? ? c anatomists of modern times. The second one consisted of technologies involved in the processing of images. Thus, a short walk through the history of anatomical imaging will bring us from cave paintings via written information only, via drawings, paintings, engravings, lithographies and prints to black and white photography, roentgenography, analogue colour photography, digital photography, offset printing, analogue and digital video, ultrasound imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomographic scanning and software-based three-dimensional reconstructions. The third one consisted of the media available or speci? ?cally made as a carrier for the images. It started with rock surfaces, then clay tablets, continued with parchment and paper, wooden blocks, copper plates, lime stones and brought us to photographic ? ? lm, roentgen ? ?lm and computer screens (Tab. 1). Ever since the beginnings, presentation of the three-dimensional results of anatomical dissections had to choose between either the reduction to t- dimensional illustrations on a ? ?at surface or the making of three-dimensional anatomical models. Both ways have been pursued for millennia.
Content Level »Research
Keywords »3D-reconstruction - Digital Imaging - Dinosaurs - anatomy - bone - brain - computed tomography (CT) - evolution - felids - mammals - morphology - nervous system - primates - system - tomography
Preface Chapter 1
Head Anatomy of Male and Female Mongolian Gazelle ? A Striking Example of Sexual Dimorphism
Roland Frey, Alban Gebler, Kirk A. Olson, Daria Odonkhuu, Guido Fritsch, Nyamsuren Batsaikhan, Ingo W. Stuermer Chapter 2
Anatomical Peculiarities of the Vocal Tract in Felids
Gerald E. Weissengruber, Gerhard Forstenpointner, Sandra Petzhold, Claudia Zacha, Sibylle Kneissl Chapter 3
The Anatomical Foundation for Multidisciplinary Studies of Animal Limb Function: Examples from Dinosaur And Elephant Limb Imaging Studies.
John R. Hutchinson, Charlotte Miller, Guido Fritsch, and Thomas Hildebrandt Chapter 4
Locomotion-Related Femoral Trabecular Architectures in Primates ? High Resolution Computed Tomographies and Their Implications for Estimations of Locomotor Preferences of Fossil Primates
Heike Scherf Chapter 5
Three-Dimensional Imaging of The Manipulating Apparatus in The Lesser Panda and The Giant Panda
Hideki Endo, Natsuki Hama,Nobuharu Niizawa, Junpei Kimura,Takuya Itou,Hiroshi Koie and Takeo Sakai Chapter 6
Using CT to Peer into the Past: 3D Visualization of the Brain and Ear Regions of Birds, Crocodiles, and Nonavian Dinosaurs
Lawrence M. Witmer, Ryan C. Ridgely, David L. Dufeau, and Molly C. Semones Chapter 7
Evolutionary Morphology of the Autonomic Cardiac Nervous System in Non-Human Primates and Humans
Tomokazu Kawashima and Hiroshi Sasaki Subject Index