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Life Sciences - Animal Sciences | Current Ornithology

Current Ornithology

Series: Current Ornithology, Vol. 16

Nolan Jr., Val, Thompson, Charles (Eds.)

2001, XX, 424 p.

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Current Ornithology publishes authoritative, up-to-date, scholarly reviews of topics selected from the full range of current research in avian biology. Topics cover the spectrum from the molecular level of organization to population biology and community ecology. The series seeks especially to review 1) fields in which abundant recent literature will benefit from synthesis and organization, 2) newly emerging fields that are gaining recognition as the result of recent discoveries or shifts in perspective, and 3) fields in which students of vertebrates may benefit from comparisons of birds with other classes. All chapters are invited, and authors are chosen for their leadership in the subjects under review.

Content Level » Research

Keywords » behavior - biology - community ecology - ecology - evolution - genetics - ornithology - parasites - reproduction - thermoregulation - vertebrates

Related subjects » Animal Sciences - Evolutionary & Developmental Biology

Table of contents 

1 Avian Coloniality: Progress and Problems.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Historical Background.- 3. Phylogenetic Analyses.- 4. Limitation of Breeding Sites.- 5. The Costs and Benefits of Coloniality.- 5.1. Ectoparasite and Disease Transmission.- 5.2. Misdirected Parental Care.- 5.3. Predation-Related Effects.- 6. Social Foraging and Coloniality.- 6.1. The Information Center Hypothesis.- 6.2. The Recruitment Center Hypothesis.- 6.3. Spatial Concentration and Local Enhancement.- 6.4. Competition and Depletion of Food.- 7. Reproductive Success and Habitat Selection.- 7.1. Mean Reproductive Success in Relation to Colony Size.- 7.2. Using Reproductive Success to Select Breeding Sites.- 8. Sexual Selection and Coloniality.- 9. Variation in Colony Size.- 9.1. Ideal-Free Distributions and Local Resources.- 9.2. Phenotypic and Genetic Differences among Individuals.- 9.3. (In)stability of Colony Size.- 10. Prospectus.- References.- 2 Begging in Nestling Birds.- 1. Parent–Offspring Conflict.- 2. The Importance of Signaling.- 2.1. Begging as a Signal.- 2.2. The Models.- 2.3. The Cost of Begging.- 3. Begging Signals.- 3.1. Defining Begging.- 3.2. Is Begging Influenced by Nestling Condition?.- 3.3. Which Cues Do Parents Use?.- 4. Begging as Competition among Nestmates.- 4.1. Sibling Competition.- 4.2. Brood Hierarchies.- 4.3. Brood Parasites.- 5. The Importance of Offspring Sex.- 6. The Role of Biparental Care.- 7. An Alternative Perspective.- 7.1. Begging as Foraging.- 7.2. Do Nestlings Learn?.- 8. Conclusions.- References.- 3 Ecological Aspects of Neophobia and Neophilia in Birds.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. The Implication of Novelty Responses and Exploration: A Brief Overview.- 1.2. Definitions.- 1.3. Costs and Benefits of Neophilia and Neophobia.- 1.4. Costs and Benefits within Two-factor Models of Exploration and Neophobia.- 2. How Neophobia and Neophilia Are Studied.- 2.1. Assessing Neophobia and Neophilia.- 2.2. Teasing Apart Neophobia, Hunger, and Neophilia..- 2.3. The Nature of Novel Stimuli.- 2.4. Among-Object Variation in Novelty Responses.- 2.5. Innate Bias in Novelty Responses.- 3. What Determines the Intensity of Neophobia and Neophilia in Adult Birds.- 3.1. The Process of Familiarization.- 3.2. The Dynamics of Exploration and Neophobia.- 3.3. Social Facilitation and Novelty Responses.- 3.4. Consistent Individual Variation in Neophobia.- 3.5. Genetic Basis for Intraspecific Variation.- 3.6. Neurobiological Basis for Novelty Responses.- 3.7. Neophobia and Gender.- 3.8. Novelty Responses and the Socioecological Niche.- 3.9. Facultative Changes in Novelty Responsiveness.- 3.10. Seasonal Changes in Costs and Benefits of Novelty Responses.- 4. Exploration in Juvenile Birds.- 4.1. Overview.- 4.2. What Do Juvenile Birds Explore?.- 4.3. Object Manipulation in Young Birds: Familiarization or Practice.- 4.4. The Effect of Diverse and Depauperate Early Environment on Adult Neophobia.- 5. Comparative Studies of Neophobia and Exploration.- 5.1. Taxonomic Comparisons.- 5.2. The Neophobia Threshold Hypothesis.- 5.3. Neophobia and Neophilia in Island Populations.- 6. Conclusions and Future Directions.- References.- 4 Avian Quantitative Genetics.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Components of Phenotypic Variation.- 3. Tools of the Trade.- 3.1. Parent–Offspring Regression.- 3.2. Full-Sib Analyses.- 3.3. Half-Sib Analyses.- 3.4. Realized Heritability.- 3.5. Genetic Correlations.- 3.6. Measurement Error and Repeatability.- 4. Empirical Data.- 4.1. Heritabilities.- 4.2. Genetic Correlations.- 4.3. Empirical Estimates: Conclusion.- 5. Maternal Effects.- 5.1. Adaptive Maternal Effects.- 6. Extra-Pair Paternity.- 6.1. Extra-Pair Paternity Detected by Heritability.- 6.2. Consequences of Extra-Pair Paternity for Avian Quantitative Genetics.- 6.3. Uses of Extra-Pair Paternity for Quantitative Genetic Analysis.- 7. Quantitative Genetics of Fitness.- 8. Genotype-Environment Interactions.- 9. Genetic Basis of Population Differentiation.- 10. Applications of Quantitative Genetics to Avian Evolution.- 11. Further Prospects.- 11.1. Animal Models in Avian Quantitative Genetics.- 11.2. Integration of Molecular and Quantitative Genetics.- 12. Conclusions.- References.- 5 Male Parental Care and Paternity.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Theoretical Models.- 2.1. Assumptions of Models.- 2.2. General Predictions from Models.- 2.3. Does it Pay to Reduce Male Parental Care When Paternity is Low?.- 2.4. Male Parental Care and the Shape of Cost and Benefit Curves.- 2.5. Female Compensation and Evolutionarily Stable Strategy Models.- 2.6. ESS Models.- 2.7. Dynamic Models.- 2.8. Conclusions from Models.- 3. Field Studies: Testing Predictions and Assumptions.- 3.1. How Does Paternity Vary?.- 3.2. Can Males Assess Paternity?.- 3.3. What Are the Costs and Benefits of Reducing Care?.- 3.4. Confounding Factors in Field Studies.- 3.5. Conclusions from Field Studies.- 4. Interspecific Analyses.- 5. Conclusions and Future Directions.- References.- 6 Physiological Ecology and Behavior of Desert Birds.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Comparative Methods.- 1.2. Deserts of the World.- 1.3. Avian Evolution.- 1.4. Paleodeserts.- 2. Energy.- 2.1. Basal Metabolic Rate.- 2.2. Field Metabolic Rate.- 3. Water.- 3.1. Water Deprivation.- 3.2. Metabolic Water.- 3.3. Renal Structure and Function.- 3.4. Evaporative Water Loss.- 3.5. Field Water Flux.- 4. Thermoregulation.- 4.1. Responses to High Ta.- 4.2. Macroclimate.- 4.3. Microclimate.- 4.4. Mobility.- 5. Optimization Processes.- 6. Summary.- References.- 7 Reproductive Energy Expenditure, Intraspecific Variation and Fitness in Birds.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Intraspecific (Interindividual) Variation.- 1.2. Doubly-Labeled Water and Other Methods for Measuring Energy Expenditure.- 1 3 Aims, Objectives, and Limits.- 2. Is Reproduction Energetically Costly, and at What Stage Is It Most Costly?.- 3. Intraspecific Variation in Daily Energy Expenditure: Biological Variation or Measurement Error?.- 3.1. Measurement Error.- 3.2. Handling or Treatment Effects.- 3.3. Individual Variation in DEE from Field Studies Relative to Measurement Error.- 4. Repeatability of Daily Energy Expenditure Measurements.- 5. Individual, Environmental, and Activity-Related Correlates of DEE.- 5.1. Individual Attributes.- 5.2. Environmental Factors.- 5.3. Activity-Related Variation.- 5.4. Summary.- 6. Metabolic Rate and Body Mass: Intraspecific versus Interspecific Scaling.- 6.1. Intraspecific Variation in Body Composition and Metabolic Rate.- 7. Relationships between DEE and Measures of Reproductive Effort or Fitness.- 7.1. Timing of Laying, Egg Size, and Clutch Size.- 7.2. Offspring Growth and Quality.- 7.3. Brood Size and Provisioning Rate.- 7.4. Costs of Reproduction: Survival and Future Fecundity.- 7.5. Summary.- 8. Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Research.- References.

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