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Life Sciences - Agriculture | Precision in Crop Farming - Site Specific Concepts and Sensing Methods: Applications and Results

Precision in Crop Farming

Site Specific Concepts and Sensing Methods: Applications and Results

Heege, Hermann J. (Ed.)

2013, XI, 356 p. 181 illus., 87 illus. in color.

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  • Interdisciplinary approach that pervades all chapters
  • The concept to deal with complicated topics simply
  • 178 illustrations, half in colour

High yields and environmental control in crop farming call for precise adaptations to local growing conditions. Treating large fields in a uniform way by high capacity machinery cannot be regarded as a sustainable method for many situations. Because differences existing within single fields must be considered. The transition from former field work carried out manually or by small implements to present day high capacity machinery caused that the farmers lost the immediate and close contact with soils and crops. 

However, modern sensing and controlling technology can make up for this deficit.  High tech methods that include proximal sensing and signals from satellites can provide for controls that allow adjusting farming operations to small fractions of one ha and sometimes even down to some m2, hence in a site-specific mode. This applies to operations for soil cultivation, sowing, fertilizing and plant protection.

This book deals with concepts, applications and results, and has an interdisciplinary approach that pervades all chapters.

Content Level » Upper undergraduate

Keywords » Environmental Control - Precision Farming - Site-specific Control - Utilizing the Yield Potential - Variations within fields

Related subjects » Agriculture - Biochemistry & Biophysics - Control Engineering - Engineering - Plant Sciences - Soil Science

Table of contents 

1 Introduction; Hermann Heege
2 Heterogeneity in Fields: Basics of Analyses; Hermann Heege
2.1 Variation and Resolution
2.2 Semivariance and Semivariogram
2.3 Cell Sizes
2.4 Processing and Adjusting the Resolution
2.5 References
3 Sensing by Electromagnetic Radiation; Hermann Heege
3.1 Basics in Sensing by Electromagnetic Radiation
3.2 Emitted, Absorbed, Reflected and Transmitted Radiation
3.3 Atmospheric Windows and Clouds
3.4 Sensing from Satellites, Aerial Platforms and Field Machines
3.5 Microwaves or Radar instead of Visible or Infrared Waves
3.6 Using Maps or On-The-Go Control in Real-Time
3.7 Georeferencing by Positioning Systems
3.8 References
4 Precision in Guidance of Farm Machinery; Hermann Heege
4.1 Principles of Guidance
4.2 Techniques of GNSS Based Guidance
4.3 Economics of GNSS Based Guidance
4.4 Problems and Solutions on Slopes
4.5 Precision in Section Control of Farm Machines
4.6 References
5 Sensing of Natural Soil Properties; Hermann Heege
5.1 Sensing of Topography
5.2 Sensing of Soil Properties on a Volume Basis
5.3 Sensing of Soil Properties on a Surface Basis by Reflectance
5.4 Summary
5.5 References
6 Sensing of Crop Properties; Hermann Heege and Eiko Thiessen
6.1 Basics of Sensing by Visible and Infrared Reflectance
6.2 Defining the Reflectance by Indices
6.3 Sensing Yield Potential of Crops by Reflectance
6.4 Fluorescence Sensing
6.5 Sensing the Water Supply of Crops by Infrared Radiation
6.6 Sensing Properties of Crops by Microwaves
6.7 References
7 Site-Specific Soil Cultivation; Hermann Heege
7.1 Basic Needs
7.2 Primary Cultivation
7.3 Secondary Cultivation
7.4 Stubble- and Fallow Cultivation
7.5 No-tillage: Prerequisites, Consequences and Prospects
7.6 References
8 Site-Specific Sowing; Hermann Heege
8.1 Seed-Rate or Seed-Density
8.2 Seed Distribution over the Area
8.3 Seeding Depth
8.4 Less Tillage, Crop Residues and Sowing Methods
8.5 References
9 Site-Specific Fertilizing; Hermann Heege
9.1 Fertilizing based on Nutrient Removal by Previous Crops
9.2 Fertilizing based on Soil Sensing by Ion-Selective Electrodes
9.3 Fertilizing based on Reflectance of Soils
9.4 Fertilizing Nitrogen based on In-Season Crop Properties
9.5 Summary
9.6 References
10 Site-Specific Weed Control; Roland Gerhards
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Weed Mapping
10.3 Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of Weed Population
10.4 Site-specific Weed Control
10.5 Outlook and Perspectives
10.6 References
11 Site-Specific Sensing for Fungicide Spraying; Eiko Thiessen and Hermann Heege
11.1 The Situation for Site-Specific Fungicide Applications
11.2 The Full-Area Preventive Concept based on Biomass
11.3 The Discrete-Spot Sensing Concept based on Reflectance
11.4 The Discrete-Spot Sensing Concept based on Fluorescence
11.5 Differentiation between N Deficiency and Effects of Fungi
11.6 Summary and Prospects
11.7 References
12 Site-Specific Recording of Yields; Markus Demmel
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Principle of Site-Specific Yield Recording
12.3 Yield Measurement for Combinable Crops
12.4 Yield Measurement for Forage Crops
12.5 Yield Sensing for Root Crops
12.6 Yield Measurement for Other Crops
12.7 Quality Sensing of Harvested Material
12.8 Processing and Mapping of Yield Data
12.9 References
13 Fusions, Overlays and Management Zones; Hermann Heege
13.1 Crop Growth Factors, Sensing and Information Use
13.2 Sensor Fusion – Solutions and Approaches
13.3 From Properties to Treatment – Map Overlay
13.4 From Properties to Treatment – Management Zones
13.5 References
14 Summary and Perspectives; Hermann Heege

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Distribution rights for India: Delhi Book Store, New Delhi, India

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