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First complete process description for the development of a microbial pesticide
Emphasizes product development from strain screening, product development, up to successful commercialization, from a bio-industry’s viewpoint
Provides a new system of rating the essential elements of biopesticides, as a tool to estimate the probability of a technical, commercial and financial success
Biocontrol is among the most promising methods for a safe, environmentally benign and sustainable crop protection. Microbial pesticides offer a great potential, and it is anticipated that they will become a substantial part of the use of all crop protection products. Their development and commercialization, however, has been difficult and with many failures.
For the first time, a rational and structured roadmap has been designed for the development and commercialization of microbial pest control products, based on entomopathogenic bacteria, fungi, viruses and nematodes, for the control of arthropod pests. The emphasis lies on strain screening, product development, up to successful commercialization, from a bio-industry’s viewpoint.
The building blocks of the entire process are identified. The selection criteria for a microbial pest control agent are defined as well as critical parameters for the development of the product. Implementation of the product into an integrated pest management programme is pivotal for a substantial market uptake. Three phases are distinguished for successful adoption in the market: an appropriate application strategy, an optimal implementation strategy, and an effective adoption strategy. Key success and failure factors are identified. Registration is a major hurdle for biopesticides. Salient registration issues are treated and useful information presented.
The road to a successful microbial pest control product is designed. Diagrams illustrate the stepwise approach of the entire process. A future perspective on the biopesticide market is presented with limiting and promotional factors and trends. The significant drivers for success are food safety concern, new research and technology, changes in the regulatory climate, and the occurrence of new invasive pests.
This systematic roadmap with a strong focus on economics and market introduction will assist academic researchers and industrial developers of biopesticides in accomplishing their goal: the development of successful cost-effective microbial pesticides.
Content Level »Research
Keywords »1. Agriculture - 2. Plant protection - 3. Biological pest control - 4. Microbial pesticides - 5. Developmental process
1 General introduction and outline.- Introduction.- Insect pathogens as microbial control agents.- Aim of this book.- Outline of this book.- Appendix: Terminology and definitions.- 2 Selection of a microbial pest control agent .- Introduction.- Critical steps and factors in the selection process of a microbial pest control agent.- Selection criteria for a microbial pest control agent.- Conclusions and recommendations.- 3 Mass production and product development of a microbial pest control agent.- Introduction.- Process development.- Product development.- Production economics and final product costs.- Conclusions and recommendations.- 4 Quality control.- Introduction.- History of quality control in microbial pest control products.- Production quality control and process quality control.- Product quality control of microbial pest control products.- Critical aspects of product quality control with the various types of pathogens.- Registration and quality control.- Practical aspects of product quality control.- Conclusions and recommendations.- 5 Registration of microbial pest control agents and products and other related regulations.- Introduction.- Entomopathogenic nematodes and regulations.- Exotic organisms and microbial pesticides.- Safe handling of microorganisms.- Intellectual property rights.- Conclusions and recommendations.- 6 Implementation of a microbial pest control product in an integrated pest management programme.- Introduction .- Development of an application strategy.- Development of an integrated pest management strategy.- Resistance and microbial pest control products.- Practical aspects of side-effect testing.- Implementation of microbial pest control products and knowledge transfer .- Conclusions and recommendations.- 7 Critical factors in the successful commercialization of microbial pest control products.- Introduction.- The historical development of biopesticide companies and microbial pest control products.- Overview of current use of microbial pest control products.- Critical success and failure factors for a biopesticide company.- Successful and unsuccessful companies.- Factors that influence the decision to develop and commercialize microbial pesticides.- Is there a successful business model for a biopesticide company?.- Critical success and failure factors for a microbial pesticide.- Developmental costs and time of a microbial pest control product.- Distribution and sale strategies.- Conclusions and recommendations.- 8 Roadmap to success and future perspective.- Introduction.- Roadmap to a successful microbial pest control product.- Future perspective.- Concluding remarks.