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Life Sciences - Agriculture | Encyclopedia of Agrophysics

Encyclopedia of Agrophysics

Gliński, Jan, Horabik, Józef, Lipiec, Jerzy (Eds.)

2011, 900 p. 450 illus., 50 illus. in color.

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  • Encompasses both the fundamental and the applied aspects of agrophysics
  • Provides a clear explanation of present knowledge and research in modern agrophysics
  • Presents the contributions of agrophysics to protect the environment and improve food quality
  • Suitable for scientists, environmentalists, technologists and engineers

This Encyclopedia of Agrophysics will provide up-to-date information on the physical properties and processes affecting the quality of the environment and plant production. It will be a "first-up" volume which will nicely complement the recently published Encyclopedia of Soil Science, (November 2007) which was published in the same series.

In a single authoritative volume a collection of about 250 informative articles and ca 400 glossary terms covering all aspects of agrophysics will be presented. The authors will be renowned specialists in various aspects in agrophysics from a wide variety of countries.

Agrophysics is important both for research and practical use not only in agriculture, but also in areas like environmental science, land reclamation, food processing etc.

Agrophysics is a relatively new interdisciplinary field closely related to Agrochemistry, Agrobiology, Agroclimatology and Agroecology. Nowadays it has been fully accepted as an agricultural and environmental discipline. As such this Encyclopedia volume will be an indispensable working tool for scientists and practitioners from different disciplines, like agriculture, soil science, geosciences, environmental science, geography, and engineering.

 

Content Level » Research

Keywords » Agrophysics - Biodiversity - Biotechnology - Crop science - Ecology - Environmental science - Genetics - Human activity - Soil science

Related subjects » Agriculture - Earth System Sciences - Geography - Soil Science

Table of contents 

Absorption.-Absorptivity.-Acoustic Emission.-Acoustic Tomography.-Adaptable Tillage.-Adhesion.-Adsorption.-Adsorption Complex.-Adsorption Energy and Surface Heterogeneity in Soils.-Adsorption Energy of Water on Biological Materials.-Advection.-Aeration of Agricultural Products.-Aeration of Soils and Plants.-Aerodynamics.-After Harvest Technology.-Aggregate Stability.-Aggregation Indices.-Agricultural Products.-Agricultural Raw Materials.-Agriculture and Food Machinery, Application of Physics for Improving.-Agroforestry Systems, Effects on Water Balance in Cropping Zone.-Agrogeology.-Agrophysical Objects (Soils, Plants, Agricultural Products, and Foods).-Agrophysical Properties and Processes.-Agrophysics: Physics Applied to Agriculture.-Air Entry Value.-Air Flux (Resistance) in Plants and Agricultural Products.-Air Humidity.-Air Porosity.-Algae, the Potential Source of Energy.-Alkalinity, Physical Effects on Soils.-Alternative Sources of Energy from Agriculture Biomass – A European Perspective.-Alumino-Silicate Clay Minerals.-Anaerobiosis.-Angle of Repose.-Anion Exchange Capacity.-Anisotropy of Soil Physical Properties.-Anoxia and Hypoxia.-Arable Land Use.-Attenuation.-Atterberg Limits.-Available Water (Capacity).-Backscattering.-Bedrock.-Bending Properties of Plants.-Bernoulli’s Principal.-Binding Force (Plants).-Biochemical Responses to Soil Management Practices.-Biocolloids: Transport and Retention in Soils.-Biofilms in Soil.-Biofilms in the Food Environment.-Biogas.-Biomass.-Biomass as an Environmentally Benign.-Energy Source.-Biomechanics.-Biomes.-Biospeckle.-Biota.-Biotechnology, Physical and Chemical Aspects.-Bound Water.-Boussinesq Equation.-Bowen Ratio.-Bragg’s Law.-Breads: Physical Properties.-Brightness Temperature in Monitoring of Soil Wetness.-Bruise.-Buffer Capacity of Soils.-Bulk Density of Soils and Impact on their Hydraulic Properties.-Burrow.-Bypass Flow in Soil.-Caking.-Caliche (Lime-Pan).-Canopy Structure.-Capillarity.-Capillary Fringe.-Carbon Losses Under Dryland Conditions, Tillage Effects.-Carbon Nanotube.-Catchment (Catchment Basin).-Cation Exchange Capacity.-Cementation.-Cereals, Evaluation of Utility Values.-Chemical Imaging in Agriculture.-Chemical Time Bomb, Relation to Soil Physical Conditions.-Chisel.-Clay Minerals and Organo-Mineral Associates.-Claypan and its Environmental Effects.-Cleavage Plane.-Climate Change: Environmental Effects.-Climate Risk.-Climate Stress Mitigation Tillage.-Clod.-Clusters in Soils.-Coagulation.-Cohesion.-Colloids.-Color Composite (Multiband Photography).-Color in Food Evaluation.-Color Indices, Relationship with Soil Characteristics.-Compactibility.-Compaction of Soil.-Compensatory Uptake.-Compressibility.-Compression Index.-Compression Point.-Compression Test, Triaxial.-Conditioners, Effect on Soil Physical Properties.-Conductivity.-Cone Index.-Confined Compression Test.-Consistency.-Consolidation.-Contact Area of Agricultural Tyres, Estimation.-Continuity Equation.-Contour-Furrow Irrigation.-Controlled Traffic Farming.-Conventional Tillage.-Coulomb’s Law.-Coupled Heat and Water Transfer in Soil.-Cracking in Soils.-Crop Emergence, the Impact of Mechanical Impedance.-Crop Responses to Soil Physical Conditions.-Crop Rotation.-Crop Water Use Efficiency.-Crop Yield Losses Reduction at Harvest, from Research to Adoption.-Cropping Systems, Effects on Soil Physical Properties.-Crushing Strength.-Crust.-Cultivation Under Screens, Aerodynamics of Boundary.-Cumulative Infiltration.-Cutan.-Cyclic Compressibility.-Darcy’s Law.-Databases on Physical Properties of Plants and Agricultural Products.-Databases of Soil Physical and Hydraulic Properties.-Deflation.-Deflocculation.-Degradation of Soil.-Denitrification.-Density.-Desertification: Indicators and Thresholds.-Detachment.-Deterministic Model.-Dew Point.-Dielectric Loss Tangent.-Dielectric Properties of Agricultural Products.-Diffuse Double Layer.-Diffusion in Soils.-Dilatancy.-Discharge.-Dispersion.-Dispersivity.-Diurnal Strains in Plants.-DNA in Soils: Mobility by Capillarity.-Double Layer.-Drainage.-Drip Irrigation.-Drought.-Drought Stress, Effect on Soil Mechanical Impedance and Root (Crop) Growth.-Drying of Agricultural Products.-Duripan.-Dynamic Load.-Earthworms as Ecosystem Engineers.-Ecohydrology.-Ecosystem.-Effective Rainfall.-Elasticity.-Elastoplasticity.-Electrical Conductivity.-Electrical Double Layer (Diffuse Layer, Double Layer).-Electrical Permeability.-Electrical Properties of Agricultural Products.-Electrical Properties of Soils.-Electrical Resistivity.-Electrical Resistivity to Assess Soil Properties.-Electrical Susceptibility.-Electrochemical Measurements in Soils.-Electrokinetic (Zeta) Potential of Soils.-Electromagnetic Field.-Electromagnetic Fields, Impact on Seed Germination and Plant Growth.-Elutriation.-Eluviation.-Emissivity.-Empirical Model.-Energetically Homogenous (Heterogenous) Surface.-Energy Balance of Ecosystems.-Energy Balance of a Field.-Enthalpy.-Entropy.-Environmental Conserving Tillage.-Enzyme.-Enzymes in Soils.-Erodibility of Soil.-Erosion.-Erosivity.-Estimation of Quartz Content in Mineral Soils.-Evaporation.-Evapotranspiration.-Exchange Complex.-Exchangeable Ions 284.-Extrusion, Effect on Physical and Chemical Properties.-Exudate, Root.-Fabric.-Failure.-Fatigue Strength.-Fats: Rheological Characteristics.-Fertilizers (Mineral, Organic), Effect on Soil Physical Properties.-Fick’s Law.-Field Water Capacity.-Fingering.-Firmness.-Fissures.-Flexural Strength.-Flocculation and Dispersion Phenomena in Soils.-Flooding, Effects on Soil Structure.-Flow.-Flowability.-Fluvial Erosion.-Flux.-Food Freezing.-Food Machinery.-Fourier’s Law.-Fractal Analysis in Agrophysics.-Fracture.-Fragipan.-Friction.-Friction Phenomena in Soils.-Frozen Foods.-Fruits, Mechanical Properties and Bruise Susceptibility.-Funnel Flow.-Furrow.-Furrow Erosion.-Furrow Irrigation.-Gas Exchange in Soils.-Gases Sink.-Geologic Erosion.-Geostatistics.-Gibbs Free Energy.-Grain Physics.-Grains, Aerodynamic and Geometric Features.-Grass Fibers, Physical Properties.-Gravimetric Water Content.-Gravitational Potential.-Gravity Head (Gravity Potential).-Grazing-Induced Changes of Soil Mechanical and Hydraulic Properties.-Greenhouse, Climate Control.-Greenhouse Effect.-Greenhouse Gas Fluxes: Effects of Physical Conditions.-Greenhouse Gases Sink in Soils.-Ground-Penetrating Radar, Soil Exploration.-Groundwater.-Gully (Linear) Erosion.-Hardening.-Hardpan.-Hardpan Soils: Management.-Hardsetting Soils: Physical Properties.-Harvest Technology.-Heat Advection.-Heat Balance.-Heat Capacity.-Heat Diffusion.-Heat of Condensation.-Heat of Sublimation.-Heat of Vaporization.-Heat of Wetting.-Henry’s Law.-Hooke’s Law.­Horticulture Substrates, Structure and Physical Properties.-Humus.-Hydraulic Diffusivity.-Hydraulic Gradient.-Hydraulic Head.-Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Soils.-Hydrodynamic Dispersion.-Hydropedological Processes in Soils.-Hydrophobicity.-Hydrophobicity of Soil.-Hypobaric Storage.-Hysteresis in Foods.-Hysteresis in Soil.-Ice Erosion (Glacial Erosion, Thermal Erosion).-Illuviation.-Image Analysis in Agrophysics.-Imbibition.-Indicator Plants.-Infiltrability.-Infiltration Capacity.-Infiltration in Soils.-Insolation.-Institute of Agrophysics in Lublin: Progress in Agrophysics.-Institute of Agrophysics in Saint-Petersburg.-Roots of Agrophysics.-Integrated Drainage.-Interception.-Interflow.-Internal Drainage.-Interrill Erosion.-Intersecting Surfaces Approach (Isa).-Intrinsic Permeability.-Ion Exchange.-Ion Hydration.-Irrigation and Drainage, Advantages and Disadvantages.-Irrigation Water Use Efficiency.-Irrigation with Treated Wastewater, Effects on Soil Structure.-Isoelectric Point.-Isotopes.-Isotropy and Anisotropy in Agricultural Products and Foods.-Kernel.-Kinematic Viscosity.-Kirchhoff’s Laws.-Kriging.-Laminar and Turbulent Flow in Soils.-Laminar Flow.-Land Reclamation.-Landfill.-Landslide.-Laplace Equation.-Latent Heat.-Layered Soils, Water and Solute Transport.-Leaching of Chemicals in Relation to Soil Structure.-Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR).-Light Interception by Plant Canopies.-Liming, Effects on Soil Properties.-Liquid Limit (Upper Plastic Limit, Atterberg Limit).-Loading.-Lodging of Crops.-Lysimeters: A Tool for Measurements of Soil Fluxes.-Machine Vision.-Machine Vision in Agriculture.-Macropore Flow.-Magnetic Properties of Soils.-Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Soil Science.-Magnetic Treatment of Irrigation Water, Effects on Crops.-Management Effects on Soil Properties and Functions.-Mapping of Soil Physical Properties.-Matric Potential.-Matrix of the Soil.-Measurements Non-Destructive.-Mechanical Impacts at Harvest and After Harvest Technologies.-Mechanical Resilience of Degraded Soils.-Membranes, Role in Water Transport in the Soil–Root–Xylem System.-Microbes and Soil Structure.-Microbes, Habitat Space, and Transport in Soil.-Microcosm.-Micro-Irrigation.-Microstructure of Plant.-Mineral Fertilizers.-Mineralisation.-Mineral-Organic-Microbial Interactions.-Mire.-Modeling the Thermal Conductivity of Frozen Foods.-Modulus of Elasticity (Young’s Modulus).-Modulus of Rigidity.-Mohre Circle of Stress.-Monitoring Physical Conditions in Agriculture and Environment.-Mualem Equation.-Mulching.-Mulching, Effects on Soil Physical Properties.-Munsell Color System.-Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Osmotic Stress.-Nanomaterials in Soil and Food Analysis.-Nature Conservation Management.-Neural Networks in Agrophysics.-Neural Networks in the Modeling of Drying Processes.-Nitrification.-Nondestructive Measurements in Fruits.-Nondestructive Measurements in Soil.-Noninvasive Quantification of 3D Pore Space Structures in Soils.-Non-Limiting Water Range (NLWR).-Non-Thermal Technologies.-Normal Stress.-Numerical Methods (Model).-Ohm’s Law.-Online Measurement of Selected Soil Physical Properties.-Organic Carbon in Soil.-Organic Dusts, Electrostatic Properties.-Organic Farming, Effect on the Soil Physical Environment.-Organic Fertilizers.-Organic Matter.-Organic Matter, Effects on Soil Physical Properties and Processes.-Ornamental Plants, Physical Properties.-Ortstein, Physical Properties.-Osmosis.-Osmotic Potential.-Overburden Pressure.-Overland Flow.-Oxidation-Reduction Reactions in the Environment.-Oxygenology.-Packing Density.-Pan.-Parent Material and Soil Physical Properties.-Partial Pressure.-Particle Density.-Particle Film Technology.-Particle-Size Distribution.-Particulate Organic Matter.-pe.-Peatlands: Environmental Functions.-Peats and Peatlands, Physical Properties.-Ped.-Pedon.-Pedotransfer Functions.-Penetrability.-Penetration Resistance.-Penman Equation.-Penman-Monteith Equation.-Perched Groundwater.-Percolation.-Permafrost.-Permanent Charge.-Permeability.-Photosynthesis.-Physical Degradation of Soils, Risks and Threats.-Physical Dimensions and Units Use in Agriculture.-Physical Phenomena and Properties Important for Storage of Agricultural Products.-Physical Processes.-Physical Properties.-Physical Properties as Indicators of Food Quality.-Physical Properties of Raw Materials and Agricultural Products.-Physical Properties for Soil Classification.-Physical Protection of Organic Carbon in Soil Aggregates.-Physical Quality, Soil.-Physical (Mechanical) Weathering of Soil Parent Material.-Physico-Chemical Methods for Remediation of Contaminated Soils.-Physics of Near Ground Atmosphere.-Physics of Plant Nutrition.-Piezometer Head.-Planck’s Law.-Plant Bending.-Plant Biomechanics.-Plant Disease Symptoms, Identification from Colored Images.-Plant Drought Stress: Detection by Image Analysis.-Plant Lodging, Effects, and Control.-Plant Nutrients.-Plant Physical Characteristics in Breeding and Varietal Evaluation.-Plant Root Strength and Slope Stability.- Plant Roots and Soil Structure.-Plant Temperature.-Plant Tropisms, Physics.-Paola Tassone.-Plant Wellness.-Plant–Soil Interactions, Modeling.-Plastic Limit.-Plasticity.-Plasticity Number.-Plate Sinkage Test.-Poiseuille’s Law.-Polish Society of Agrophysics.-Pore Morphology and Soil Functions.-Pore Size Distribution.-Porosimetry.-Porosity.-Potential Evapotranspiration.-Power Spectrum.-Precision Agriculture: Proximal Soil Sensing.-Pre-Compression Stress.-Pre-Compression Test.-Preferential Flow.-Pressure Head.-Pressure Potential.-Priming Effects in Relation to Soil Conditions – Mechanisms.-Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Relaxometry in Soil Science.-Proximal Soil Sensing.-Puddling: Effect on Soil Physical Properties and Crops.-Pugging.-Quality of Agricultural Products in Relation to Physical Conditions.-Radiative Properties.-Rainfall Interception by Cultivated Plants.-Rainfall Water Use Efficiency.-Raw Materials.-Redox Potential (Eh).-Reflectivity.-Remote Sensing of Soils and Plants Imagery.-Representative Elementary Volume.-Rheology in Agricultural Products and Foods.-Rheology in Soils.-Rheopexy.-Rhizosphere.-Rigidity.-Rill Erosion.-Root Length Density.-Root Responses to Soil Physical Limitations.-Root Strength.-Root System Architecture: Analysis from Root Systems to Individual Roots.-Root Water Uptake: Toward 3-D Functional Approaches.-Roughness.-Runoff.-Salinity, Physical Effects on Soils.-Scale (Dependency, Invariance).-Scaling of Soil Physical Properties.-Seed.-Seepage.-Self Similarity.-Sensory Evaluation.-Shear Strength.-Shear Stress.-Sheet Erosion.-Sheet Flow.-Shrinkage.-Shrinkage and Swelling Phenomena in Agricultural Products.-Shrinkage and Swelling Phenomena in Soils.-Slaking.-Slope Stability.-Snowmelt Infiltration.-Soil Aeration.-Soil Aggregates.-Soil Aggregates, Structure, and Stability.-Soil Aggregation and Evaporation.-Soil Biota, Impact on Physical Properties.-Soil Colour Index.-Soil Compactibility and Compressibility Stephan.-Soil Erodibility.-Soil Erosion Modeling.-Soil Functions.-Soil Hydraulic Properties Affecting Root Water Uptake.-Soil Hydrophobicity and Hydraulic Fluxes.-Soil Parent Material.-Soil Penetrability, Effect on Animal Burrowing.-Soil Penetrometers and Penetrability.-Soil Phases.-Soil Physical Degradation: Assessment with the Use of Remote Sensing and GIS.-Soil Physical Quality.-Soil Pore.-Soil Separates.-Soil Structure and Mechanical Strength.-Soil Structure, Intersecting Surface Approach, and its Applications.-Soil Structure, Visual Assessment.-Soil Surface Sealing and Crusting.-Soil Temperature Effect.-Soil Texture: Measurement Methods.-Soil Tillage.-Soil Tilth: What Every Farmer Understands but no Researcher Can Define.-Soil Water Flow.-Soil Water Management.-Soil Water Potential (Pressure, Head).-Soil Welding.-Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum.-Soil-Wheel Interactions.-Soilborne Diseases, Control by Physical Methods.-Soils and Plants Aeration.-Soils and Plants Oxygenation.-Solar Drying of Biological Materials.-Solute Transport in Soils.-Sorption.-Sorptivity of Soils.-Space Soil Physics.-Spatial Variability of Properties and Processes.-Spatial Variability of Soil Physical Properties.-Specific Surface Area of Soils and Plants.-Stable Isotopes in Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions.-Stable Isotopes, their Use in Soil Hydrology.-Standardization in Agrophysics.-Steady Flow.-Sticky.-Stochastic Model.-Stokes’ Law.-Stomatal Conductance, Photosynthesis, and Transpiration, Modeling.-Stratification of Soil Porosity and Organic Matter.-Strength.-Stress Relaxation.-Stress–Strain Relations.-Stress–Strain Relationships: A Possibility to Quantify Soil Strength Defined as the Precompression Stress.-Subdrainage.-Subirrigation.-Subsoil.-Subsoil Compaction.-Subsurface Water.-Surface and Subsurface Waters.-Surface Area.-Surface Charge.-Surface Properties and Related Phenomena in Soils and Plants.-Surface Roughness, Effect on Water Transfer.-Surface Runoff.-Surface Storage Capacity.-Surface Tension.-Surface-Water Excess.-Suspension.-Swelling.-Temperature Effects in Soil.-Tensile Strength.-Tensiometry.-Terrestrial Ecosystem.-Texture.-Thermal Capacity.-Thermal Conductivity.-Thermal Diffusivity.-Thermal Imaging.-Thermal Technologies in Food Processing.-Thermosequence.-Thixotropy.-Tillage, Impacts on Soil and Environment.-Tillage Erosion.-Tillage Pan.-Tilth.-Top Soil.-Toposequence.-Trace Elements in Crops: Effects of Soil Physical and Chemical Properties.-Traffic Farming.-Trafficability and Workability of Soils.-Transmissivity.-Transpiration.-Transpiration Ratio.-Treated Waste Water.-Triaxial Compression Test.­-Trickle Irrigation.-Tropical Fruits and Vegetables: Physical Properties.-Tropical Soils, Physical Properties.-Tropical Watersheds, Hydrological Processes.-Tropisms.-Turbidity.-Turf.-Turgor Pressure.-Two-Phase Flow.-Underground Runoff.-Unsaturated Zone.-Unsteady Flow.-Urban Soils, Functions.-Utility Value of Cereals.-Vadose Zone.-Van Der Waals Forces.-Van Genuchten Equation.-Vapor Pressure.-Viscosity.-Visible and Thermal Images for Fruit Detection.-Visual Assessment.-Vitreosity.-Void Ratio.-Volumetric Water Content.-Vughs.-Water Application Efficiency.-Water Balance in Terrestrial Ecosystems.-Water Budget in Soil.-Water Diffusion.-Water Effects on Physical Properties of Raw Materials and Foods.-Water Erosion: Environmental and Economical Hazard.-Water in Forming Agricultural Products.-Water Management.-Water Productivity.-Water Release Curve.-Water Reservoirs, Effects on Soil and Groundwater.-Water Retention Curve.-Water Stress.-Water Table.-Water Uptake and Transports in Plants over Long Distances.-Water Use Efficiency in Agriculture: Opportunities for Improvement.-Water-Repellent.-Waterlogged Soil.-Watershed.-Weather, Effects on Plants.-Wellness.-Wetlands, Management, Degradation and Restoration.-Wetness.-Wettability.-Wetting and Drying, Effect on Soil Physical Properties.-Wetting Front.-Wien’s Law.-Wildfires, Impact on Soil Physical Properties.-Wilting Point.-Wind Erosion.-Windbreak and Shelterbelt Functions.-Workability.-X-ray Method to Evaluate Grain Quality

 

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