When the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) was founded just over a century ago the practice of referring disputes to international tribunals was un usual. Instead, arbitration, with its procedural emphasis on party-autonomy, was seen as the only acceptable way for sovereign states to settle their differences peacefully. War and neutrality, as Professor Shabtai Rosenne explains in his in troduction to this most welcome publication of extracts from the proceedings of the International Peace Conferences, were regarded as inevitable realities of in ternational relations as late as the mid-twentieth century. Moreover, a perma nent tribunal with international jurisdiction would not have stood much chance of either success, or survival, at the end ofthe nineteenth century. The First International Peace Conference in 1899 adopted the 1899 Conven tion for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes, the objectives of which were international disarmament and the strengthening of international dispute settlement as an alternative to war. The 1899 Convention alsocreated the PCA in an effort to institutionalize dispute resolution through a third party mechanism.
Content Level »Research
Keywords »Arbitration - Hague Peace Conference - Peace - Permanent Court of Arbitration - Settlement of international disputes - international arbitration
The Reports to the Hague Conferences of 1899 and 1907.- The Reports to the Hague Conferences of 1899 and 1907.- The International Peace Conference of 1899.- Official Correspondence Leading up to The First Peace Conference.- Report to the Conference from the Third Commission on Pacific Settlement of International Disputes.- Final Act of the International Peace Conference of 1899.- The international Peace Conference of 1907.- Official Correspondence Leading up to the Second Peace Conference.- Extract From The Ninth Plenary Meeting October 16, 1907.- Report of the conference from the first Commission recommending the creation of A court of arbitral justice.- Report to the conference from The first commission on the revision Of the convention of 1899 for the Pacific settlement of international disputes.- Final Act of the Second International Peace Conference, 1907.