Springer CrossMark Policy

CrossMark is a multi-publisher initiative to provide a standard way for readers to locate the authoritative version of an article or other published content. By applying the CrossMark logo, Springer is committing to maintaining the content it publishes and to alerting readers to changes if and when they occur.

Clicking the CrossMark logo on a document will tell you its current status and may also give you additional publication-record information about the document.

For more information on CrossMark, please visit the CrossMark site.

The Springer content that will have the CrossMark logo is restricted to current and future journal content and is limited to specific publication types.

For general author guidelines and information, please see: Publishing with Springer - Resources for Springer Authors.

Correction and Retraction Policies

Springer is committed to uphold the integrity of the literature and publishes Errata, Expressions of Concerns or Retraction Notices dependent on the situation and in accordance with the COPE Retraction Guidelines. In all cases, these notices are linked to the original article.
More information on Springer’s guidelines can be found here: Publishing Ethics for journals
Information on COPE Retraction Guidelines can be found here: Retraction Guidelines