General Terms and Conditions of Use

1. Scope of application 

By using the websites of Springer-Verlag GmbH of Tiergartenstrasse 17 in D-69121 Heidelberg (hereinafter referred to as “Springer”) which are available at, you expressly agree to the following terms and conditions of use without any further declaration being required. Your use of these websites shall in each case be governed by the terms and conditions of use provided online at the time of your use. We do not recognise any conflicting or differing terms and conditions – unless we have specifically agreed otherwise in writing.

2. Content, offering, liability 

The websites available at offer information and products of Springer itself and of third parties. To the extent that these originate from third parties, they are identified as such. Springer shall only be liable for losses or damage arising from your reliance on information contained in such content/information you obtained by using if the damage was caused by intent or gross negligence of Springer's legal representatives or vicarious agents [“Erfüllungsgehilfen”], or if an obligation was breached due to slight negligence the discharge of which you could particularly rely on (a “cardinal obligation”).
As far as information and products offered by third-party businesses and individuals are concerned (e.g. discussion forums), Springer only provides the technical platform. Such content/offers made available to you by third parties are property of their respective creators, authors or distributors and not of Springer. Therefore, Springer is under no circumstances responsible for the accuracy or reliability of such content, information or offerings. In particular, Springer accepts no liability for any loss or damage you may incur through reliance on such information. Postings which are capable of causing damage to third parties or contain nothing but advertising statements will be deleted by the webmaster and, in the event of violations of criminal or competition law, reported immediately. Springer expressly distances itself from all postings of this kind.

3. Copyright, right of use, content 

All copyrights, proprietary rights and other third-party rights which are accessed via remain the sole property of their respective holders and are protected accordingly. Unless otherwise stipulated in an individual case, you only have the statutory right to make a small number of copies of parts of the content, provided that such copies may only be made and used for personal purposes and it must be ensured that all copyright and other proprietary notices and their content are retained.
The content and data contained on the websites are not permitted to be distributed in any form and must not be implemented on any third-party websites.
The databases pertaining to the website offering may not be used for commercial purposes without Springer’s express prior consent. Misuse may also lead to criminal sanctions.
An online subscription gives the right to use the database on a single PC, by one user at a time, only during the agreed subscription period. Multiple user subscriptions specifying a maximum number of permitted users and PCs are available if the database is to be used by more than one user or on more than one PC. Corporate licences are subject to special terms and conditions and types of offers.
In closed user groups, each user shall be assigned a personal user name and password for access from his or her workstation. The user shall be under an obligation to keep them confidential and not to disclose them to others, and shall change them if they have become known to any third party for any reason.
Database content or any part of it must not be disclosed to others.

4. Obligations in participating in dialogues 

You agree to limit your use of dialogue-oriented offerings on (e.g. discussion boards) to a professional exchange of views, to refrain from making advertising statements and to consider the legitimate interests of other participants. In the event of misuse, your postings may be deleted and your membership may be disabled.

5. User accounts 

You must ensure that the information you are asked to provide on registration is accurate. In particular, you must not enter details of others and are obliged to update your personal information without undue delay in the event of any change.
Your access details (email address and password or user name and password) are intended only for use by you personally. You are not authorised to share these access details with others or otherwise disclose them. If you learn of any actual or suspected unauthorised use of your access details, you shall be under an obligation to notify Springer promptly. If you are responsible for such misuse of your access details, you shall be liable for all consequences of use by a third party. This may also result in an obligation to pay for orders made without authorisation. Your liability ends only if and when you have notified Springer of the unauthorised use or loss of your access details and changed your password, if necessary.
Springer reserves the right to refuse registrations on a case-by-case basis without stating reasons. Moreover, Springer remains entitled at any time to disable access details temporarily or permanently in cases of violation of these terms and conditions of use (in particular if false information was provided on registration and/or access details, in particular passwords, were disclosed to others without authorisation) and/or terminate your access with immediate effect or within a period to be determined at Springer’s discretion and/or to terminate the agreement on use by extraordinary termination without notice. The same shall apply in cases of misuse or damage or if the functionality of the offering is impaired. If this is the case, you shall not be entitled to re-register without Springer’s express prior consent. Springer expressly reserves the right to make claims for damages.

6. Availability 

The availability of our websites at all times is not guaranteed. In particular, the websites may be temporarily unavailable for maintenance or technical reasons without this giving rise to any claims against us.

7. Data protection 

Protecting the security and privacy of your personal data is of great importance to Springer. For full information on this, please refer to Springer’s current privacy policy.

8. Miscellaneous 

All legal relationships arising from the use of websites available at shall be governed by the laws of the Federal Republic of Germany.

9. Severability 

If any part of these General Terms and Conditions of Use is or becomes invalid, the validity of the remainder shall not be affected. The statutory provisions shall then apply instead of the invalid provision. The same shall apply if there is any gap in these General Terms and Conditions of Use.

General Terms and Conditions of Use