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Food Science & Nutrition | Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management

Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management

International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods Staff (Ed.)

Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2002, XIV, 362 p. 2 illus.

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2. 11 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 CHAPTER 3-MEETING THE FSO THROUGH CONTROL MEASURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3. 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3. 2 Control Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3. 3 Confirm That the FSO Is Technically Achievable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3. 4 Importance of Control Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3. 5 Performance Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 3. 6 Process and Product Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 3. 7 The Use of Microbiological Sampling and Performance Criteria . . . . . . . . . 59 3. 8 Default Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 3. 9 Process Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 3. 10 Monitoring and Verifying Control Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 3. 11 Examples of Control Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 3. 12 Assessing Equivalency of Food Safety Management Systems . . . . . . . . . . . 68 3. 13 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Appendix 3-A: Control Measures Commonly Applied to Foodborne Diseases . . 71 CHAPTER 4-SELECTION AND USE OF ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 4. 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 4. 2 Equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 4. 3 Establishment of Acceptance Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 4. 4 Application of Acceptance Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 4. 5 Determining Acceptance by Approval of Supplier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 4. 6 Examples To Demonstrate the Process of Lot Acceptance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 4. 7 Auditing Food Operations for Supplier Acceptance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 4. 8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 CHAPTER 5-ESTABLISHMENT OF MICROBIOLOGICAL CRITERIA FOR LOT ACCEPTANCE . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . 99 5. 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 5. 2 Purposes and Application of Microbiological Criteria for Foods . . . . . . . . . 10 1 5. 3 Definition of Microbiological Criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1 5. 4 Types of Microbiological Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 5. 5 Application of Microbiological Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 5. 6 Principles for the Establishment of Microbiological Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 5. 7 Components of Microbiological Criteria for Foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 5. 8 Examples of Microbiological Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Content Level » Research

Related subjects » Food Science & Nutrition

Table of contents 

1—Microbiological Hazards and Their Control.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 History.- 1.3 The Concept of a Food Safety Management System.- 1.4 Historical Development.- 1.5 Status of Foodborne Illness: Etiologic Agents or Contaminants.- 1.6 Practices Contributing to Foodborne Illness.- 1.7 Importance of Effective Control Measures.- 1.8 Effectiveness of GHP and HACCP.- 1.9 Would an FSO Improve Food Safety and Reduce Foodborne Illness?.- 1.10 Use of FSOs in Food Safety Management.- 1.11 Performance, Process, Product, and Default Criteria.- 1.12 Establishment of Control Measures.- 1.13 Assessment of Control of a Process.- 1.14 Acceptance Criteria.- 1.15 Microbiological Criteria.- 1.16 Microbiological Tests.- 1.17 Summary.- 1.18 References.- 2—Evaluating Risks and Establishing Food Safety Objectives.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Tolerable Level of Consumer Protection.- 2.3 Importance of Epidemiologic Data.- 2.4 Evaluation of Risk.- 2.5 Food Safety Objectives (FSOs).- 2.6 Establishment of an FSO Based on a Risk Evaluation by an Expert Panel.- 2.7 Evaluation of Risk by Quantitative Risk Assessment.- 2.8 Establishment of an FSO Based on Quantitative Risk Assessment.- 2.9 Stringency of FSOs in Relation to Risk and Other Factors.- 2.10 Summary.- 2.11 References.- 3—Meeting The Fso Through Control Measures.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Control Measures.- 3.3 Confirm That the FSO Is Technically Achievable.- 3.4 Importance of Control Measures.- 3.5 Performance Criteria.- 3.6 Process and Product Criteria.- 3.7 The Use of Microbiological Sampling and Performance Criteria.- 3.8 Default Criteria.- 3.9 Process Validation.- 3.10 Monitoring and Verifying Control Measures.- 3.11 Examples of Control Options.- 3.12 Assessing Equivalency of Food Safety Management Systems.- 3.13 References.- Appendix 3-A: Control Measures Commonly Applied to Foodborne Diseases.- 4—Selection and Use of Acceptance Criteria.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Equivalence.- 4.3 Establishment of Acceptance Criteria.- 4.4 Application of Acceptance Criteria.- 4.5 Determining Acceptance by Approval of Supplier.- 4.6 Examples To Demonstrate the Process of Lot Acceptance.- 4.7 Auditing Food Operations for Supplier Acceptance.- 4.8 References.- 5—Establishment of Microbiological Criteria for Lot Acceptance.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Purposes and Application of Microbiological Criteria for Foods.- 5.3 Definition of Microbiological Criterion.- 5.4 Types of Microbiological Criteria.- 5.5 Application of Microbiological Criteria.- 5.6 Principles for the Establishment of Microbiological Criteria.- 5.7 Components of Microbiological Criteria for Foods.- 5.8 Examples of Microbiological Criteria Ill.- 5.9 References.- 6—Concepts of Probability and Principles of Sampling.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Probability.- 6.3 Population and Sample of the Population.- 6.4 Choosing the Sample Units.- 6.5 The Sampling Plan.- 6.6 The Operating Characteristic Function.- 6.7 Consumer Risk and Producer Risk.- 6.8 Stringency and Discrimination.- 6.9 Acceptance and Rejection.- 6.10 What Is a Lot?.- 6.11 What Is a Representative Sample?.- 6.12 Confidence in Interpretation of Results.- 6.13 Practical Considerations.- 6.14 References.- 7—Sampling Plans.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Attributes Plans.- 7.3 Variables Plans.- 7.4 Comparison of Sampling Plans.- 7.5 References.- 8—Selection of Cases and Attributes Plans.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Microbial Criteria: Utility, Indicator, and Pathogens.- 8.3 Factors Affecting the Risk Associated with Pathogens.- 8.4 Categorizing Microbial Hazards According to Risk.- 8.5 Definition of Cases.- 8.6 Deciding between Two-Class and Three-Class Attributes Sampling Plans.- 8.7 Determining Values for m and M.- 8.8 Specific Knowledge about the Lot.- 8.9 What Is a Satisfactory Probability of Acceptance?.- 8.10 Selecting n and c.- 8.11 Sampling Plan Performance of the Cases.- 8.12 References.- Appendix 8-A: Ranking of Foodborne Pathogens or Toxins into Hazard Groups.- 9—Tightened, Reduced, and Investigational Sampling.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Application of Tightened Sampling and Investigational Sampling.- 9.3 Tightened Sampling Plans.- 9.4 Example of the Influence of Sampling Plan Stringency in Detecting Defective Lots.- 9.5 Selecting the Sampling Plan According to Purpose.- 9.6 Reduced Sampling.- 9.7 References.- 10—Experience in The Use Of Two-Class Attributes Plans for Lot Acceptance.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 The Concept of Zero Tolerance.- 10.3 The Need for Compromise.- 10.4 Application of Two-Class Sampling Plans for Pathogens Such as Salmonella.- 10.5 Problems in the Implementation of Stringent Sampling Plans.- 10.6 Relation to Commercial Practice.- 10.7 Discrepancies between Original and Retest Results.- 10.8 Summary.- 10.9 References.- 11—Sampling to Assess Control of The Environment.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Principles of GHP.- 11.3 Post-Process Contamination.- 11.4 Establishment and Growth of Pathogens in the Food Processing Environment.- 11.5 Measures To Control Pathogens in the Food Processing Environment.- 11.6 Sampling the Processing Environment.- 11.7 References.- 12—Sampling, Sample Handling, and Sample Analysis.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 Collection of Sample Units.- 12.3 Intermediate Storage and Transportation.- 12.4 Reception of Samples.- 12.5 Sample Analysis.- 12.6 Recovery of Injured Cells.- 12.7 Errors Associated with Methods and Performance of Laboratories.- 12.8 References.- 13—Process Control.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 Knowledge of the Degree of Variability and the Factors That Influence Variability.- 13.3 Process Capability Study.- 13.4 Control during Production: Monitoring and Verifying a Single Lot of Food.- 13.5 Control during Production: Organizing Data from Across Multiple Lots of Food To Maintain or Improve Control.- 13.6 Use of Process Control Testing as a Regulatory Tool.- 13.7 Investigating and Learning from Previously Unrecognized Factors or Unforeseen Events.- 13.8 References.- 14—Aflatoxins in Peanuts.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 Risk Assessment.- 14.3 Risk Management.- 14.4 Acceptance Criteria for Final Product.- 14.5 References.- 15—Salmonella in Dried Milk.- 15.1 Introduction.- 15.2 Risk Evaluation.- 15.3 Risk Management.- 15.4 Product and Process Criteria.- 15.5 GHP and HACCP.- 15.6 Acceptance Criteria for Final Product.- 15.7 References.- 16—Listeria Monocytogenes in Cooked Sausage (Frankfurters).- 16.1 Introduction.- 16.2 Risk Evaluation.- 16.3 Risk Management.- 16.4 Process and Product Criteria.- 16.5 GHP and HACCP.- 16.6 Acceptance Criteria for Final Product.- 16.7 References.- 17 —E Coli O157:H7 In Frozen Raw Ground Beef Patties.- 17.1 Introduction.- 17.2 Risk Evaluation.- 17.3 Risk Management.- 17.4 Control Measures.- 17.5 Acceptance Criteria.- 17.6 Statistical Implications of the Proposed Sampling Plan.- 17.7 References.- Appendix A—Glossary.- Appendix B—Objectives and Accomplishments of the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods.- Appendix C—ICMSF Participants.- Appendix D—Publications of the ICMSF.- Appendix E—Table of Sources.

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