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Food Science & Nutrition | Developments in Oils and Fats

Developments in Oils and Fats

Hamilton, R. J. (Ed.)

Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1995, XIV, 269 p.

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  • About this book

This first volume in a series is intended to provide up-to-date information on specific topics in oils and fats. The book will be especially valuable for any practising scientist or technologist who deals in any way with oils and fats whether from a nutritional, surfactant, cosmetic or analytical chemistry point of view. In addition there is sufficient depth in most of the articles to catch the imagination of many more senior managers in the industry. The oils and fats industry is closely aligned with the food industry and it is no surprise to find that five of the chapters (1, 2, 3, 6 and 7) are written from a food perspective. The current arguments about diets and their fat content are well developed in Dr Enser's chapter on meat lipids. He has presented a very balanced picture explaining that there are many reports which contradict the fashionable 'saturated fatty acids are bad' theory. This chapter will do much to illustrate the dietary implications of meat lipids and should stimulate discussion and further research.

Content Level » Research

Keywords » analytical chemistry - chemistry - fat - fats - food - food industry - nutrition

Related subjects » Food Science & Nutrition

Table of contents 

1 Meat lipids.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Coronary heart disease (CHD).- 1.2.1 Will dietary change decrease CHD?.- 1.2.2 Cholesterol consumption.- 1.2.3 Fat consumption.- 1.2.4 Meat lipids and plasma cholesterol.- 1.2.5 Lean meat.- 1.3 Triacylglycerols.- 1.3.1 Pigs.- 1.3.2 Effect of diet.- 1.3.3 Lean pigs.- 1.3.4 Cattle and sheep.- 1.3.5 Effect of diet.- 1.3.6 Effect of leanness.- 1.4 Lipid consistency.- 1.5 Organoleptic properties.- 1.5.1 Intramuscular triacylglycerols.- 1.5.2 Intramuscular phospholipids.- 1.5.3 Autocatalytic autooxidation.- 1.5.4 Haem iron and non-haem iron.- 1.5.5 Role of phospholipids in rancidity.- 1.6 Cholesterol.- 1.7 Conclusion.- References.- 2 Marine (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Origins and composition of marine fish oils.- 2.3 Speciality marine oils rich in (n-3) PUFA.- 2.4 Concentration of (n-3) PUFA from marine oils.- 2.5 Concluding remarks.- References.- 3 Confectionery fats.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Cocoa butter.- 3.3 Confectionary fats.- 3.4 Hard butters.- 3.4.1 Lauric cocoa butter substitutes.- 3.4.2 Non-lauric cocoa butter substitutes.- 3.4.3 Cocoa butter equivalents.- 3.5 Availability of raw materials.- References.- 4 Derivatives or long-chain ratty acids.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Testing methods.- 4.2.1 Test method for corrosion resistance.- 4.2.2 Surface tension.- 4.2.3 Friction coefficients.- 4.2.4 Welding load.- 4.2.5 Practical tests.- 4.2.6 Microbial activity tests.- 4.3 Results and discussion.- 4.3.1 Additives from higher fatty acids.- 4.3.2 Additives from dibasic acids.- 4.3.3 Additives from aromatic carboxylic acids.- 4.3.4 Fluorine compounds from hydroxyl fatty acids and related compounds.- 4.3.5 Practical tests.- 4.3.6 Antimicrobial properties.- 4.4 Experimental.- 4.4.1 Reaction of undecylenic acid (I) with cycIohexanone (II).- 4.4.2 Reaction of 2-(1-hydroxy-l-cycIohexyl)-10-undecenoic acid (III) with p-toluenesulfonic acid.- 4.4.3 Reaction of undecylenic acid (I) with mecaptoacetic acid.- 4.4.4 10, 11-Dichloromethylene undecanoic acid (VII).- 4.4.5 Reaction of linoleic acid (VIII) with maleic anhydride.- 4.4.6 12-Isovaleroyloxy stearic acid (XI).- 4.4.7 Monoethylester (XIII) of sebacic acid (XII) (1 ,8-octanedicarboxylic acid).- 4.4.8 Aromatic carboxylic acid derivatives.- 4.4.9 Reaction of methyl ricinolate (XIV) with PPDA.- 4.4.10 Reaction of2,3-dibromo-l-propanol (XVII) with PPDA.- 4.4.11 Reaction of glycerol ?-monoallylether (XIX) with PPDA.- 4.4.12 Preparation of adducts of amino alcohols with boric anhydride.- 4.4.13 Preparation of a sample solution for a water-soluble cutting fluid.- Acknowledgements.- References.- Further reading.- 5 Sunflowerseed oil.- 5.1 History.- 5.2 Sunflower breeding.- 5.3 Oil composition.- 5.4 Waxes.- 5.5 Phospholipids.- 5.6 Tocopherols.- 5.7 Food use.- 5.8 Sunflower oil as an alternative fuel.- 5.9 Oleochemicals.- References.- 6 Developments in palm oil.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Biological aspects.- 6.3 Palm oil quality.- 6.4 Characteristics of palm oil.- 6.4.1 Physical characteristics.- 6.4.2 Chemical characteristics.- 6.5 Characteristics of palm kernel oil and palm oil fractions.- 6.5.1 Palm kernel oils.- 6.5.2 Fraction of palm oil.- 6.6 Production of palm oil and palm oil products.- 6.6.1 Milling.- 6.6.2 Refining and processing.- 6.7 Uses of palm oil and its products.- 6.7.1 Food uses of palm oil.- 6.7.2 Non-food uses.- 6.8 Nutritional aspects of palm oil.- 6.9 Effluent in the palm oil industry.- 6.9.1 Palm oil mill effluent.- 6.9.2 Palm oil refinery waste.- 6.9.3 Waste from the oleochemical industry.- 6.9.4 Future developments.- References.- 7 Lipids and oxygen: is rancidity avoidable in practice?.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Guidelines.- 7.2.1 Antioxidants.- 7.2.2 Effect of temperature.- 7.2.3 Reduction of access of air.- 7.2.4 Use of metal deactivators and antioxidants.- 8 Crystallisation of fats.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Basic principles.- 8.3 Supersaturation.- 8.4 Nucleation.- 8.5 Growth.- 8.6 Crystal size, habit and polymorph.- 8.7 Post-growth events: agglomeration, ripening, contraction.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 9 Infrared spectroscopy of lipids.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Principles.- 9.3 Instrumentation.- 9.3.1 Ratio-recording infrared spectroscopy.- 9.3.2 Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.- 9.4 Quantitative infrared spectroscopy.- 9.5 Sampling methods.- 9.6 Internal reflection spectroscopy.- 9.6.1 Parameters influencing absorbance.- 9.6.2 Internal reflection devices.- 9.6.3 Applications and limitations.- 9.7 Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.- 9.8 Near infrared spectroscopy.- 9.8.1 Instrumentation in the near infrared.- 9.8.2 Types of instruments.- 9.8.3 Data collection and handling.- 9.8.4 Advantages of NIR reflectance techniques.- 9.9 Raman spectroscopy.- 9.9.1 Instrumentation.- 9.9.2 Sampling procedures.- 9.9.3 Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy.- 9.10 Structure elucidation via vibrational spectroscopy.- 9.10.1 Medium infrared region.- 9.10.2 Near infrared region.- 9.10.3 Raman spectroscopy.- 9.11 Applications of infrared vibrational spectroscopy.- 9.11.1 Introduction.- 9.11.2 Functional group analysis.- 9.12 Review of lipid literature.- 9.13 Quantitative applications.- References.

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